LIBRARY OF CONGRESS DDDDSEailbH :*iiilSii: iiSiiiii: Class / / Copyright W. „ COPYRIGHT DEPOSIT Apoijj^ MAP OF APOLLO IN 186L 1816-1916 HISTORY OF APOLLO PENNSYLVANIA. THE YEAR OF A HUNDRED YEARS By T. J. Henry, M. D. PUBLISHED BY THE NEWS-RECORD PUB. CO. APOLLO, PENNSYLVANIA 1916 COPYRIGHT 1916 BY T. J. HENRY. M. D. HISTORY OF APOLLO 'JUN 29 1916 ©CI.A431675 1816-1916 HISTORY OF APOLLO THL YEAR OF A HUNDRED YEARS EXECUTIVE CENTENNIAL COMMITTEE AND CHAIRMEN E. A. Townsend, President John H, Jackson, Treasurer Sterling G. McNees, Secretary Historical, Dr. T. J. Henry Vocal Music, Frank T. Wray Instrumental Music, Thos. Sutton Grounds, W. E. Jones Speakers, Frank W. Jackson Reception, Rev. J. W. Brockway Civic, W. R. Rowland Parade, L. Todd Owens Entertainment, Mrs. J. Wes Cowan Invitation, Charles H. Truby Badges, Walter R. Steele Finance, Ira J. Wray Fireworks, T. Earle McCullough Decoration, Milo D. Shaw Publicity, Lauretta A. Guthrie Athletics, Dr. J. C. Hunter Historical Pageant, S. G. McNees Advertising, W. C. Campbell Historical Relics, Philip Koch Reunions, Margaret McBryar OFFICIALS OF APOLLO BOROUGH Burgess, - J. C. Hunter, M. D, Councilmen, J. M. Hankey, President, R. W. Rowland, R. F. Orr, Mor- gan Crawford, Charles W. Johnston and J. Ross Lobaugh Secretary, Sterling G. McNees School Directors, Dr. Colin Cameron, President, J. B. Miller, T. Earle McCullough, Charles F. Austin, Mrs. T. J. Henry Secretary, Charles H. Truby Board of Health, J. C. Hunter, M. D., President, W. F. Devers, D. B. Coulter, James DeShong, Sterling G. McNees, Secretary Health Officer, Russell M. Owens Chief of Police, L. J. Gulp Street Commissioner, - - - - - - D. C. Young Constables, D. L. Haney, Joseph McGuire High Constable, ------ James M. Spahr Borough Solicitor, Sterling G. McNees Justices of the Peace - - W. W. Hill and John Q. Cochrane FOREWORD It has been asked, "Why write a history of Apollo?" Importance is relative. It is not necessary to be a city of the first class to fill the niche in the hearts of the people or the history of the state. Besides it is our town. It is more. It is said that in no otheil language is there a word which exactly defines home. Apollo is our TOWN, our HOME. It has fallen upon the writer to be historian for Apollo's Centennial. It has been necessary to be brief. It has been found impossible to embody biographies. Indebtedness for in- formation furnished from memory's stores is acknowledged from the following: Mrs. M. Evans, Mrs. Daniel Jack, Mrs. Margaret James, Miss Elizabeth Ford, Miss Millie Turney, Mrs. Elizabeth Bash, Mrs. Nancy Coleman, and G. Wash Burkett. To others for the loan of books: W. B. Ansley, M. D., Mrs. T. M. Willard, F. W. Jackson, Geo. W. Crawford, J. P. Wood, Robert Lock; to the different ministers in town for church statistics and to Mrs. George J. Bortz for her "History of the Lutheran Church." Other citizens in Apollo have assisted in gathering statistics. The following have contributed articles: T. A. Cochran, list of soldiers buried in local cemeteries; S. F. Hildebrand, list of soldiers enlisting in Apollo and the im- mediate vicinity; Lauretta A. Guthrie, "History of the W. C. T. U."; Mrs. T. J. Henry, histories of Woman's Club and Apollo Free Li- brary; J. N. Nelson, History of Apollo Trust Company; Prof. W. R. Steel, roster of school teachers; C. P. Wolfe, History of First Nation- al Bank; Syl. T. Hildebrand, roster of bands. A few of the articles have been taken with little change from the local papers as there had been some of them contributed by the writer years ago, although usually unsigned. In compiling this work the writer gleaned freely from histories of the neighboring counties and from C. A. Hanna, "Wilderness Trail" and "Thwaite's Early Western Travels." With these aids and the writer's knowledge of the town, and this extends over half a century, it is hoped that the chronicles are correct and that they will give pleasure to some and pain to none. If so, they will have served their purpose. TABLE. OF CONTENTS Page Additions to Borough -------- 25 Apollo Bridge -- --47 Apollo Steel Co. - .__57 Apollo's Fountain 47 Automobiles 98 Aeroplanes -....gg Apollo Trust Co. 69 Board of Trade .__ gg Brick Works qi Burial of Warren 4.1 Business Men's Association 91 Bird Life -------_.__ 99 Bridges 59 Borough Horse -----_. ..99 Basin ------__.__ 99 Burgesses ___ 54 Bands ------- ....gg Captain Sharp's Journey --------35 Camahan's Blockhouse --------38 Concrete Works ------.._ loi Centennial Program - - - - - - -- 50 Cemeteries -----__... 63 Coal Mines 68 Canal -..-_ 52 Cooperage -----_____ 53 6 CONTENTS. Page Clubs 91 Constables ----------94 Colored People 100 Community Trees --------_ loo Churches Presbyterian ---------74 Methodist Episcopal --------75 Zion, A. M. E. 76 United Presbyterian 76 Lutheran --77 Baptist 79 Free Methodist 80 Shiloh Baptist 80 Reformed ----------81 Catholic 81 Deep Snow ---__-__-- loi Dentists ----.-----.55 Electric Railway 67 Electro-Plating Works 57 Electric Steel Co. 58 Free Library ----------90 Ferries 59 Fort Hand 34 Foundries -----------62 Fire Department --- 65 Fires 65 Fairs 101 First National Bank 70 Fraternal Orders ---------91 Gas and Gas Companies --------68 General History - - - - - - - -- 11 Garbage Furnace --- 101 Gala Days 48 CONTENTS. 7 Page Grist Mills """-------58 Dr. McKissen ""-------- 44 History of Apollo --_ jg Hannastown "■--------29 Iron Industries ""-------55 Indian Spring ----------32 Indian Arrowheads 43 Justices g^ Kiskiminetas River ---------26 Legendary ------.-..37 Local Tales -___39 Lawyers gg Laufman Mill --__ gg Lime and Ballast Co. - _ . g7 Middle Decade ------.___ 92 Miscellaneous -__9g Military ---._ g3 Nail Mill 55 Newspapers qi Old Home Coming 49 Old Inhabitants -----____ 39 Ordinances ----------26 Old Mills 31 Post Office ----- g4 Poetry 4g Political ---------__ 87 Personal Mention ---_ gg Present Business - - - - - - __ - 102 Potteries ---------..go Planing Mills 58 Physicians ---------- 54 Pound -----.-__-- 98 Rolling Mill ----__.___ 55 8 CONTENTS. Page Regional History . - _ 29-32 Soldiers, Civil War 84 Soldiers, Spanish-American War ------ 86 Salt Industry ----------51 Schools 71 Suburbs 95 The Big Maple 96 Telephones ee Tanneries -----------58 Township and Borough --------24 The Unfinished Millstone -------- 30 Wireless Telegraphy - 101 Water Works 64 Woolen Mill 67 W. C. T. U. - - - - - 81 Woman's Club - 90 Warren 40 LI5T OF ILLUSTRATIONS L MAP OF APOLLO IN 1861. IL OLDEST HOUSE IN APOLLO.' III. VIEW OF COUNTY BRIDGE. IV. MRS. DRAKE'S LOG CABIN. / V. THE UNFINISHED MILL STONE." VI. BALANCED ROCK. VII. BURNT MILL HOLE. VIII. RESIDENCE OF JOHN B. KERNS ON THE SITE OF FORT HAND. IX. INDIAN ROCK. X. OLD OUTLET LOCK HOUSE. XL FIRST PRINTING OFFICE OF WARREN LACON. XII. CO. I, 78th REG. PA. VOL. AT LOOKOUT MOUNTAIN, TENNESSEE. XIII. OLD SOLDIERS LEAVING APOLLO FOR THE FIF- TIETH ANNIVERSARY OF GETTYSBURG. XIV. BEGINNING THE NEW PRESBYTERIAN CHURCH. XV. FIRST CATHOLIC CHURCH. XVL FLOOD OF 1907. XVII. FLOOD AT NORTH WARREN AVENUE IN 1907. XVIII. 'SQUIRE WM. HENRY ENTERING HIS OFFICE AT THE AGE OF NINETY. XIX. J. P. WOOD WITH A GERMAN CARP AND A SPOON- FISH CAUGHT NEAR THE BRIDGE. XX. THE BIG MAPLE. XXI. OLD MARTIAL BAND. XXII. DEEP SNOWFALL OF 1910. XXIII. COL. S. M. JACKSON AND HIS HORSE FRANK. HI5TORY OF APOLLO PENNSYLVANIA. 1816 Apollo, Armstrong County, Pennsylvania. 1916. The Year of a Hundred Years. No man's life is a history unto himself. His ancestors and his associations form an integral part thereof. So with the history of a tovv'n — not only its buildings and its inhabitants make its history, but the circumstances which brought it into existence and the in- fluences which contribute to its continuance. It will not, therefore, be irrelevant in writing the history of Apollo, Armstrong Co., Penn- sylvania, to consider briefly the state and the county before the town. The history of Pennsylvania is unique inasmuch as, under the Crown of England, it was a province, not a colony, from the first. It was purchased by William Penn, son of Admiral Wm. Penn, of England. Wm. Penn, Jr., was a young man much like others of his age, proficient in manly sports and tolerably studious while at college. While attending Oxford he became a Quaker — a new sect at that time. He refused to attend chapel and prayers as was re- quired at that institute and was reprimanded and fined. He became radical and, strangely enough, loving liberty himself, he was not willing to grant it to others, for he with his companions in the new faith were expelled from college for tearing the surplices off some of his fellow-students. His father beat him and banished him from home for his fanatical actions. Later, through the intercession of his mother, father and son became reconciled. The latter was sent to France to forget his folly. He traveled in France and Spain and returned with "too much vanity of the French garb and affected man- ner of gait and speech." He studied law and had some military ex- perience but returning to his religious convictions he was again es- tranged from his father. Again they were reconciled. Soon after this his father died and William having been fined, imprisoned and buffeted about on account of his Quaker tendencies, decided to go where he could enjoy religious freedom. It happened that King Charles II owed his father's estate sixteen thousand pounds. For this and the valuable services rendered the Crown by Admiral Penn the King granted to Wm. Penn a tract or pi'ovince in America which Penn wished to call New Wales. After some consideration. King Charles called it Pennsylvania which every school child knows means Penn's Woods. This was in 1681. Owing to the vastness of Amer- ica and ignorance as to the real lay of the lands, the extent of this purchase was too much of the "more or less" as it occurs in old deeds so that over five million acres more were granted than are actually included in Pennsylvania. New York, Maryland and Virginia de- tracted from the original grant. Penn immediately sent colonists over to take possession and the following year, August 30, 1682, he 12 THE HISTORY OF APOLLO. sailed in the ship Welcome. Arriving in America he established a government and, broadened by his experiences in England, granted the greatest religious liberty. He was opposed to holding slaves and early advocated their education, the abolition of polygamy among them and their civil trial for crime with a view to their final freedom. It may be well at this point to consider who were the inhabitants of this New World whence Penn directed his energies. America gives evidence of having been inhabited for ages. It is sufficient merely to mention the Cliff Dwellers as a lost race and to speak but briefly of the Mound Builders. The Zuni Indians, of New Mexico, are the remnant of a pagan people conquered in 1550 by the Span- iards, who yet retain their own religion despite their subjection to Christian nations for more than three and one-half centuries. But the Mound Builders are of more local interest inasmuch as evidences of their habitations have been observed in Pennsylvania and even in Armstrong county. These mounds were of various forms and uses, some as forts and some as burial places. None of the mounds in Pennsylvania are so elaborate or unique as in some of the Western and Southern states. Those near Manor were in the shape of circu- lar forts. They had been ditched around and trees growing upon them were estimated to have been 200 to 300 years old. Too much space cannot be given to this discussion, but from the fact that some Mound Builders cremated their dead and kept the ashes in urns, that they were artisans in copper as well as users of stone and flint, there is no doubt but that they were a distinct race from the Indians. It seems that they usually followed the river valleys. In this vicinity there is but one mound regarded as the work of this race and it has never been explored. This mound is on the Thomas Martin farm on the North Washington road. It appears very prominently on a hill to the right of the road as one views it fi'om Chambers' Schoolhouse. It is one hundred and fifty feet in diameter and is of different soil from the rest of the hill. After the Mound Builders, what? The Lenni Lenape have a tradition that the Allegewi inhabited the eastern part of this country. The Lenni Lenape (or Original People) claim they were the first Indians in America; that they were the progeni- tors of all the other tribes. They finally left the land of the setting sun, where their ances- tors had lived for ages, and journeyed toward the rising sun. At the great Mississippi they came upon a different people, taller and heavier than the Indians. The Allegewi, as these people were called, refused to let them settle there. After some time they agreed to let them pass on through their territory. On seeing their multitudes they feared the result of the permission and fell upon those who had crossed the river, slaying them and threatening the same fate to any who should attempt to follov/. The Lenni Lenape still lingered on the west bank of the Mississippi until another tribe of Indians came. These were the Mengwe, also seeking lands further East. They had OLDEST HOUSE IN APOLLO— SOUTH SECOND STREET (Picture by T. J. Henry.) <! I— I O o o a H k! Dd O Q M 3 THE HISTORY OF APOLLO. 13 come from the great North West. Forming an alliance they crossed over the river and made war on the Allegewi, who in spite of their forts and superior stature were overwhelmed and driven from their homes. The fate of this people is lost to history. The Lenni Lenape and the Mengwe followed up the valley of the Ohio and made division of the lands. The Mengwe went North. Some of the explorers from the Lenni Lenape wandered over the Alleghenies and found vast hunting grounds and no inhabitants. This territory was fruitful with berries and nuts as well as full of game v\^hich had never been fright- ened by man. The rest of the tribe emigrated to this new hunting ground and settled on the banks of the Lenape Whittuck, or Dela- ware River, afterwards so called in honor of Lord Delaware who had reached the bay and river in 1610. The whites calling this stream the Delaware naturally called the redmen found upon its banks the Delawares. After the settlers took up this region the Delavv'ares gradually returned to the Alle- gheny and Ohio valleys for game. The Shawnees came from the South in 1677 and both tribes lived along the Allegheny and its tribu- taries. Thus it happened that in the historic valley of the Kiski- minetas there were many villages of the Delaware and Shawnees tribes. The Delawares were great hunters and often their villages were less stable than those of the Sha^vnees. Among the other Indians with whom the early settlers of Penn- sylvania were destined to come in contact were the Senecas, Cayugas, Oneidas, Onondagas and Mohawks. These seemed to be tribes which had sprung from the Mengwe. These several tribes had formed a confedei'acy to protect themselves from the Delawares. This alli- ance was formed at the suggestion of an old Mohawk, Thannawagge. Thus allied they were called the Iroquois or Five Nations. They were presided over by chiefs and sachems. The sachems or wise men met annually to adjust such questions as affected the whole fed- eration. The chiefs ruled in war and held their positions by valor alone. These people had a legend that a man of miraculous birth, Hiawatha, had come to teach them agriculture and the benefits of peace. These tribes lived along the St. Lawrence, both North and South, and occupied much of New York and of Pennsylvania in the North. The Hurons had either been refused admittance to the alli- ance or had been expelled and were at enmity with the Five Na- tions. Champlain took sides with the Hurons and incurred the dis- pleasure of the Five Nations who became the friends of the English. Other tribes were more or less active in Pennsylvania, but these are the most important. Returning to Penn's coming, the Indians were not all he was to meet. The Swedes had first settled in this territory. These were super- seded by the Dutch.. However, Penn's arrival was welcomed by these settlers and he at once began to establish a provincial government. 14 THE HISTORY OF APOLLO. The first Indians Penn came in contact with were the Delawares. Not satisfied with his purchase of the land from the Crown, he rec- ognized the prior right of the Indians and began negotiations with them. Purchases were made as more land was needed by settlers. At first the dealings were entirely with the Delawares, but later the Five Nations overcame the former and the whites were compelled to deal with theiji. The Indians had land in plenty and parted with it for small considerations. A large part of Chester County was pur- chased by Penn for a couple of hundred yards of cloth for coats and blankets, for guns and ammunition, knives, tomahawks, scissors, needles, gimlets, awls, beads and jews-harps. Even a barrel of beer was part of the consideration. Two of the most important purchases were those of the "Walking Purchase" and the purchase in 1768. The former because of the dissatisfaction in its consummation, the latter because of its magnitude. The "Walking Purchase" was made in agreement by which the extent of the purchase was to be a three days' walk westward. Penn, himself, walked the first half and quit until more was required. He followed the trail in his day-and-a half's walk. Later the whites saw an opportunity to gain by this bargain and had the three days' journey walked by the compass directly west. This was done in 1737.Three trained walkers undertook to accomplish the task. One of them, Yeates, became exhausted and died in a few days. Jennings, broken in health, lived but a few years. The third, Edward Marshall, accomplished the remarkable feat of walking 86 miles. He lived to be a good old age. The Indians always claimed they were cheated and that the walk should have been according to beaten trails. The Delawares never consented to the terms but were compelled by the Five Nations to submit. This was the beginning of many murders by the Indians. Among the ones to suffer was Edward Marshall. His whole family save one was killed. He spent most of his long life seeking revenge. The purchases were so indefinite that the Indians failed to observe them. Although these treaties have been shrouded in mystery and legend, it is fully estab- lished that as early as 1736 Penn had purchased the whole of the province from the Indians. They, however, claimed to have misun- derstood the provisions and a new treaty was made in 1754 with the Five Nations by which they conveyed all the lands between the Northern and Southern boundaries of Pennsylvania and "as far West as the setting sun." The main bodies of these Indians, as well as the smaller tribes, denied the right of the sachems to barter their hunting grounds and went to war. To stop this war, the whites in 1758 relinquished all the lands West of the Alleghenies. The set- tlers gradually obtruded themselves upon this territory and in 1768 at Fort Stanwix, N. Y., they obtained a grant of all but a small portion of N. W. Pennsylvania. The boundaries described in the treaty ran up the west branch of the Susquehanna to its source near THE HISTORY OF APOLLO. 15 Cherry Tree, then called Canoe Point, because it was as far up as the stream was navigable for canoes. Thence it ran to Kittanning and down to the border along the Allegheny and Ohio. After this treaty all the Indian towns were abandoned, but roving bands of dis- satisfied savages still wandered over the country. During all this turmoil various uprisings of the Indians occurred and many outrages were committed against the colonists. In the years past, as has been stated before, the Delawares and the Shawnees had been gradually crowded from their hunting grounds in the Delaware and Susquehanna valleys. These tribes in later years had not been considered in the dealings with the Five Nations. Naturally they did not feel like relinquishing these regions without remuneration. Driven to the valleys of the Allegheny and the Ohio, they had established many towns before the whites slowly advanced step by step until this territory was also in demand by the ever in- creasing army of emigrants. Shingas was a Delaware chieftain, Tecumseh and Cornstalk were Shawnees. One tribe was ruled by a woman. Queen Alliquippa, who held sway between Turtle Creek and the Youghiogheny. All tribes held their special hunting grounds. Finally in 1784 the Indians ceded all Pennsylvania territory to the whites. In spite of this up till 1782 all the territory North of the Kiskiminetas River was yet a frontier. Although they had no fixed residences, bands of Indians committed depredations all through this region even as late as 1796. There were several reasons why West- ern Pennsylvania was so long being permanently settled. Because Virginia claimed part of this territory, the titles to land were doubtful and many settlers moved on to Ohio and other western points where clear deeds could be obtained. Another reason was that the French and English treaty at Aix La Chapelle in 1748, while virtually set- tling their war, did not define their lines in America, and while the Ohio Company formed in Virginia by royal grant claimed this ter- ritory, the Governor General of Canada, Marquis de la Gallissoniere, in this year, sent Celoron down the Allegheny and the Ohio to take possession in the name of the King of France. Under these orders, Celoron proceeded from Lake Erie to Lake Chautauqua, placing lead- en plates at specified points. One was placed at the place now called Celoron on Lake Chautauqua. One was placed at Warren, Pa., and, descending the Allegheny and Ohio Rivers, he laid claim to both sides of these rivers and their tributaries. In 1752 the Gov. General died and was succeeded by Marquis du Quesne. Gov. Dinwiddle, of Virginia, sent George Washington, in 1753, to inquire into the designs of the French. This led to the building of a fort at the Forks. Ensign Ward was in command. The French, under Contrecoeur, caused Ward to surrender in 1754, and they es- tablished Fort Du Quesne. They had another fort at Venango called Le Beuf. These conflicting interests led to the French and Indian War which lasted from 1754 to 1756. It would take volumes to relate 16 THE HISTORY OF APOLLO. what occurred in Pennsylvania alone during this great war. Suffice it to say that after Braddock's defeat the Indians went wild with thirst for blood, devastating homes and massacreing all ages and sexes. Intimately connected with the present history was the taking of the Indian village of Kittanning. In 1756, Col. Armstrong, who was stationed on the Susquehanna, conceived the idea of punishing the Indians on their own ground. The Indians had villages along the Kiskiminetas and Allegheny Riv- ers and from these they would make raids over the mountains to the white settlements, killing and stealing and escaping to their strong- holds. From Ft. Shirley, Col. Armstrong came up the Juniata and down across the Kiskiminetas, August 30, 1756, with 307 men. His objective point was Kittanning, the most important Indian village in this region. On the 8th of September at daybreak. Col. Armstrong ordered the attack on the town. ' The Indians made a brave defense and refused to surrender. Col. Armstrong ordered the village to be DuQuesne could cut them off. In this year Indian raids were so near the powder magazine where the Indians declared they had enough powder to last for ten years. The fire soon reached the storehouse and an explosion occurred which was heard by the French at Ft. Du- Quesne, who immediately dispatched troops to aid the Indians. After the houses caught on fire the Indians fought at a disadvantage and soon had to come out in the open. A number escaped, but in all thirty or forty dead Indians were found after the battle. Col. Arm- strong successfully returned to Fort Shirley ere the troops from Ft. set on fire. John Ferguson succeeded in setting fire to the stockade frequent that a bounty was paid for the capture or killing of an Indian. One hundred fifty dollars for a prisoner and one hundred thirty for a scalp. For a boy or a squaw, one hundred thirty for a prisoner and fifty for a scalp. With the French and Indians both as enemies the settlers had hard times until 1758, when Gen. Forbes with nearly nine thousand men, British regulars and provincials, started on the Western expedition. Leaving Philadelphia he later met the provincials under Col. Washington at Bedford. Acting under the advice of Col. Bouquet and the Pennsylvania officers, he cut a new road a distance of 45 miles from Raystown to Loyalhanna. A fort was erected here and Maj. Grant was sent with 800 men to ascertain the condition of affairs at the Forks. This party was defeated by the French and Indians and but a handful escaped to return to Col. Bouquet's com- mand. Genl. Forbes, coming up with the command at Loyalhanna, soon pushed forward toward Ft. DuQuesne. On reaching this place he found it had been destroyed by the French and over its ruins Fort Pitt was erected. In 1759 Quebec was captured from the French and in 1760, Genl. Amherst, commander-in-chief of all the British forces in America, dealt the French such a blow that every fort capitulated and France's THE HISTORY OF APOLLO. 17 power in America was lost forever. Although the French retired the Indians continued a menace for many years. In 1763, Mason and Dixon's Line was run by two English surveyors and astronomers to settle the dispute between the Penns and Lord Baltimore, over the boundaries of Pennsylvania and Maryland. Later this line became more famous as a division between free and slave states, Pennsyl- vania having abolished slavery in 1780. In this connection it is very interesting to record that the aboli- tion of slavery was gradual in Pennsylvania. All slaves were re- quired to be registered at a certain date. If not so registered they became free. All slaves registered remained slaves until death or voluntary freeing by their owners. All children born after this act became free at the age of twenty-one. The result of this was that up to the year 1840 there were yet 64 slaves in the state. The Revolution came and Pennsylvania sent her sons in the cause of the colonists. The latter having won their freedom, the Proprietary Rule of Pennsylvania came to a close with this state's union with the other colonies. The three lower counties as surveyed along with the state north of Mason and Dixon's Line withdrew at this time and became the State of Delaware. During the Revolutionary War the Indians were active all over Western Pennsylvania and especially in the County of Westmoreland, which had been erected by Pro- vincial Assembly, February 26, 1773. This was the eleventh county and the last under Proprietary Government. It was a part of the tract ceded to the Penns by the Iroquois in 1768. In 1771 it was yet a part of Bedford County and the southern part was claimed by Virginia. Armstrong County was formed of parts of Lycoming, Al- legheny and Westmoreland Counties by Act of March 12, 1800. In this year the site of the County Seat was established at a point within five miles of the old Indian Town of Kittanning. The county was named after Col. Armstrong, whose victory over the Indians led to the destruction of that Delaware stronghold. Col. Armstrong had taken up over five hundred acres of this tract and the Armstrongs donated land for public buildings. The county was ju- dicially organized in 1805. A question frequently asked is "What became of the Indians who were displaced by the whites?" After the revolution the Mohawks under Joseph Brant crossed over into Canada where they have two reservations north of Lakes Erie and Ontario. The Cayugas are scattered and with but a few hundred Tuscarawas have found homes with the Mohawks. The Oneidas are mostly at Green Bay, Wisconsin. Nearly all the Senecas are in Western N. Y. The Onondagas are near Syracuse. The Iroquois probably never numbered more than 25,000 and are equal to almost half that number yet. Probably the greater number of the Five Nations live in the United States. They have schools, missions and churches. Many of them have been successful as soldiers, engineers and farmers. The 18 THE HISTORY OF APOLLO. Shawnees, who had been driven by the Iroquois into the South to lands now the state of Tennessee, had returned and took part in the Indian and Revolutionary wars. These are nearly all in Indian Ter- ritory, with no tribal relations. The Delawares, whose history is well worth searching, were a proud and haughty race until overcome by the superior forces of that remarkable alliance, the Five Nations. After their defeat they were humiliated, defrauded and driven west of the Alleghenies. In 1789 they were given a reservation in Ohio. In 1818 they were transferred to Missouri. In 1866 they accepted land in severalty in Indian Territory and relinquished all tribal relations.. Thus mercilessly has civilization dealt disaster to the people who once lived on these hills and in these valleys, then covered by virgin forests, but now stripped and bare, torn and disfigured, occupied by mills and railroads, cities and towns, where the main object in life is the making of the "Almighty Dollar." HISTORY OF APOLLO. The New Purchase was opened for settlement after the Treaty of 1768. John Montgomery and Alexander Stuart had applied for a tract of land in the Kiskiminetas Valley, as will be seen by the fol- lowing: Pennsylvania Archives, Third Series, Vol. II, Page 459. Land Office, May 21st, 1769. Benjamin Austin in behalf of himself, Thomas Austin and Joseph Ellicott prays that a caveat be entered that no Return of Survey be accepted for John Montgomery, Esq'r of a Tract of Land called Warren's Sleeping place on the Keskemenetes River as he appre- hends Mr. Montgomery Survey was made without proper authority and that they applied for the same on the 7th of April at which time Mr. Montgomery had made no application to the Office for that spot. The last Monday in July is appointed for hearing. David Kennedy for James Tighman, Sec'ry. To John Lukens, Esq'r, S. G. Vol. 3, P. 287. At a Meeting of the Governors on Wednesday, the 7th day of February, Anno Domini, 1770. Present. The Governor. The Sec'ry, Mr. Tighman. The Receiver Gen'l, Mr. Physick. The Auditor General, Mr. Hockley. Benjamin Austin, Thomas Austin and Joseph Ellicott Agent John Montgomery & Alex'r Stuart, on Caveat. i ;z; ^ PQ < U o o hJ w rt w 0) M H-l <; >» w Xi Q 3 r/1 -t-> K S W THE HISTORY OF APOLLO. 19 On hearing it appears that John Montgomery & Alexander Stuart obtained applications on the 9th of February, 1769, for two thousand acres of land. One thousand on the North Side of the Keskamenitas Creek, including the mouth of Black Leggs Creek and Black Leggs Town and one thousand on the South Side of Kiskamenitas Creek be- low the mouth of Black Leggs Creek. That upon inspecting the place afterward in order to survey said location it was found that there was not a sufficiency of land to fill them. That the Deputy survey- or at the instance of the said John Montgomery made four separate surveys at or near the places afterward the land not allowing the Quantities to be surveyed in two surveys only. That the Surveyor also at the instance of the said John Montgomery (it being too re- mote from Philadelphia to send for relocations) made four other surveys a considerable distance lower down the Kiskamenitas, all subject to the Approbation of the Governor. And the Application was made to the Governor for approbation and the same was ob- tained before the opening of the office for the new purchase. That the whole of the surveys does not exceed the quantity allowed on the applications to be surveyed. That on the seventh day of April, next after the opening the office the said Benjamin and Thomas Austin entered an application on one of the places where one of the said John Montgomery & Stuart's last mentioned four surveys were made and upon considering the whole matter the Governor orders that all the said surveys be received into the Surveyor General's Office in order for confirmation upon warrants of acceptance to be issued for that purpose. (Judgment in favor of Montgomery dated 7th of February, 1770.) Montgomery's claim having been sustained, Thomas Penn, son of Wm. Penn, and John Penn, grandson of Wm. Penn, being the proprietaries at this time, accordingly conveyed the titles to two plots to John Montgomery on two separate dates, March 5, 1773, and Dec. 27, 1774. Wm. Smith purchased both these plots at sheriff's sale in 1805. Nine years later he sold them to Wm. Johnston and Thomas Hoge for $3,708. Thos. Hoge sold his undivided half to Rev. Wm. Speer, who with Wm. Johnston sold 206% acres of the lower end to Isaac McKisseck. This is now the Allison farm. A num- ber of other sales not historically interesting are omitted. In the Greensburg Register, of Nov. 9, 1816, appeared the follow- ing notice: From the Greensburg Register, Nov. 9, 1816. Warren, a new town on the Kiskiminetas. The subscriber has laid out a town on the north bank of the Kiskiminetas river, in Arm- strong county, immediately opposite the mouth of the Beaver Dam Creek, on the farm known by the name of "Warren's sleeping ground." This town is supposed to be eligibly situated for business, and to offer many advantages to settlers. It is below the falls of the 20 THE HISTORY OF APOLLO. Kiskiminetas, and the navigation thence to Pittsburg is uninterrupt- ed. The great state road from Bellefonte via Indiana to Pittsburg, passes and is now open through it. There is also a road laid out and opened from Greensburg to the mouth of the creek, opposite the town. The surrounding country is well populated. It is distant From Pittsburg by water 37 miles From Pittsburg by land 25 miles From Greensburg 21 miles From Kittanning 16 miles From Indiana 25 miles The lots will be offered at public sale on the premises, on Wed- nesday, the 4th of December next, on a credit of six, twelve and eighteen months, the purchasers giving notes with approved security. WILLIAM JOHNSTON. Point Johnston, Nov. 6, 1816. The editor of the Mercury, Pittsburg, and the American, Indiana, are requested to insert the above advertisement three times in their respective papers, previous to the day of sale, for which they will charge. W. J. Another advertisement appropriate at this time was published in the Greensburg Gazette, February 1st, 1817. For Sale, a Valvable Tract of Patented Land, advantageously situated in Armstrong county, Pennsylvania, adjoining the navigable stream, the river Kiskiminetas and on the state road now in part opened, and to be completed as soon as the spring season will admit; which road has its commencement near the navigation of the river Susquehanna, in Centre county and passed from Bellefonte through the town of Indiana to the city of Pittsburg — passing directly through the upper end of this tract, where there is an excellent situa- tion for a ferry. On this tract the town lots of the town of Warren have lately been sold and are now rapidly improving. This track adjoins the river immediately below its falls and extends along it about two miles, being twelve miles from its mouth and twenty miles from the city of Pittsburg. It contains six hundred acres or there- abouts; 200 acres are dry bottom of the first quality and 200 acres natural meadow ground; the remainder is upland of an excellent quality and well coated with white oak, hickory, locust and walnut timber; the bottom land is well timbered with walnut, cherry, locust and elm, &c.; about 70 acres are cleared. A number of never failing springs of water, with other natural conveniences, render this tract suitable to bear diversions. The soil of the whole tract is of a super- ior quality and the situation pleasant. It was surveyed on an early choice, being among the first returned surveys on said river. It may be purchased together or in two or more divisions as may best suit the purchasers. An indisputable title will be given. Terms may be given by applying to the Rev. William Speer, near Greensburg, to the subscriber, at Port Johnston, or to John Speer, near the premises. THE HISTORY OF APOLLO. 21 Upon this tract of land, 810 feet above sea level, the town of Warren was surveyed and laid out in lots by Wm. Watson, who was also a Justice of the Peace and wrote a number of the deeds for the properties. The lots were fifty in number and were 66x165 feet. The limits of the town were enclosed within the boundaries as now represented by First Street to South Fifth and from Pennsylvania Ave. to the river. The streets running parallel with the river were two, Back (later Church and now Pennsylvania Ave.) and Water (Kiskiminetas Ave.) while an alley served the purpose of Warren Ave. The names of the streets from North to South were Main (South Second), Thirty Foot (S. Third), Indiana (S. Fourth) and Coalbank (S. Fifth) Streets. Main street was the chief thorough- fare and business street. On it were the stores, taverns, printing office and blacksmith shops. The lots were numbered from the river up. Lot No. 1 was the McMullen lot, but it extended clear back to what is First Street. Lot No. 10 was what is now occupied by Frank Clowes and Ban Owens. The stables of these lots were on First Street. Coalbank Street took its name from a coalbank on the Robert Jones lot. Several additions to the town have been made. The first, called the New Addition, was eleven acres, owned by John Andree and John Mcllwain. At this time North Street (now First) came into use as a street. After the canal bridge was built at the foot of this street, gradually the line of traffic shifted until finally it was the principal street. According to the terms of the sale of lots the owners had promised to donate two acres adjoining Back Street for meeting house, school and cemetery purposes. Accordingly this was laid out. The plot is known as the old graveyard. The First Presbyterian Church was built on this plot in 1826. A schoolhouse was built at the southern end of this ground and that part of the lot was never fenced in with the graveyard. After the schoolhouse was torn down the lot was a public village green for many years. It was purchased by the Owens brothers from the Presbyterian Church. How that Church came to own the ground is given in the history of this congregation. An offer was made by the promoters of Warren which reads as follows: "The first four men who will erect a house upon their lots can go into our forest and take sufficient timber for the entire build- ing free of charge." There was a squatter's cabin upon this tract. It appears that Anthony O'Brien, accompanied by another Irishman, both stonemasons, came along about the time work was begun on the State Road. About 1810 this then great undertaking was be- gun. Heretofore travelers followed a trail or bridle path four or five feet wide. On this they carried all the commodities necessary to wilderness life, grain, iron, furniture, salt and all things not ob- tainable on a farm. The State Road as projected was to be sixty feet wide. It was partially opened in 1812. This road at this point coming from Indiana passed down what is now known as South 22 THE HISTORY OF APOLLO. Second Street and entered the river at a point just above the present county bridge. On crossing the fording it led up the bank slightly higher up the stream, and continued on to Pittsburg. The town of Warren was laid out so that Main Street (South Second) was a part of this highway. Anthony O'Brien and James Haley had squatted on Warren's Sleeping Ground at the foot of this street. John Black, who purchased Lot No. 1, paid the squatters a small sum to get them to move on without legal proceedings. Mr. Black was from Westmoreland County and built the first house in the village. This stood at the corner of Main and Water Streets, now South Second and Kiskiminetas Ave. It was the first public house also. It was known in later years as the McMullen house. About twenty-one years ago it was damaged by fire and the original log structure was removed. The other men who took advantage of the free timber offer were Conrad Ludwig, of Westmoreland, who built where the lockup stands. Henry Ford built about where the Reformed Par- sonage is and Robert Hanna, great grandfather of the late John R. Hanna, built on the south side of Main Street. The building is yet standing, is owned by the J. F. Whitlinger heirs and is occupied by Aunt Nan Jack. It is now the oldest structure in Apollo. These houses were all constructed of hewn logs and were finished in 1817. In 1819 the first frame building was erected. The carpenter work was done by John Cochran, father of Maj. T. A. Cochran. Isaac McLaughlin, uncle of Robert McLaughlin, built on Main Street in 1820. John Wort built a frame house in 1825. The first brick house was built by Dr. Wm. McCullough on the southeast corner of North and Church Streets and is yet standing, owned and occupied by Labanah Owens. The first stone building was the Presbyterian Church, in 1826. It stood for forty years. The first concrete block building was erected by Harry Wood in 1905. It stands at the rear of his nickel- odeon. The first settlers of the town prior to the building of the Penn- sylvania canal were, besides the first four builders, Joseph Alford, Isaac McLaughlin, Michael Risher, Robert Stewart, John Wort and Catherine Cochran. The latter, a widow, came from Crawford's Mill after her husband had died at that place. Her oldest son, John, then a boy of 12 years, helped Abraham Ludwick to clear the greater portion of the land within the limits at that time. Michael Cochran, another son, became a blacksmith and cutler on Main Street. He was proud of the quality of his cutlery and always stamped his name thereon. His great grandson. Dr. E. B. Henry, of Ingomar, Pa., has a drawing knife made and stamped by him. He later be- came a Justice of the Peace in the to\vnship and subsequently became Associate Judge of Armstrong County. W. J. Guthrie, of Pittsburgh, has two deeds executed by him conveying an acre of land from John Andree and Elizabeth Andrea THE HISTORY OF APOLLO. 23 for a consideration of $20 to Robert McKissen, March 30, 1843, and later, June 17, 1843, the same was conveyed by Robert McKissen and Ellen McKissen to George A. Withington for $27.50. This lot was re- purchased by Andree as the same is yet a part of the Owens farm. Polly Wilson, a daughter of Catherine Cochran, became owner of the Cochran log cabin on Indiana Street. Her son, Greenberry, while yet a mere boy helped haul logs from Hickory Bottom to byild some of the later log houses. Valentine Ford lived on the property now owned by D. H. Williams. He was a cooper and had a small shop at the foot of S. Fourth Street. John Ford owned where Cas- par Kettering lives. The house just above the J. W. Cowan property on S. Fourth Street is one of the oldest houses of Warren. Andrew Cunningham, grandfather of Miss Millie Tumey, occupied one of the twelve original log cabins in Warren. He was a cabinet maker and, as in those days there was not sufficient business in his trade to fur- nish a livelihood, he worked at carpenter work and repair of boats. The boat yard for the repair of canal boats was at the present site of John Green's ice pond. Andrew Cunningham was the first constable in the borough. The only log cabin now standing without any weather boarding, but in its pristine beauty of hewn logs, chunked and daubed, is standing on the rear of Mrs. Sarah Drake's lot, Kiskiminetas Avenue, and was built by George Hunter seventy-five years ago. The first house in town was the first public house, also, and was kept by James Horrel. Samuel Gordon was a prominent tavern keeper as well as a prominent citizen. John Mcllwain had a tavern where Steele's Garage stands. After the death of John Mcllwain, John T. Smith married his widow and they kept tavern for many years on the corner of Warren Avenue and First Street. Mr. Smith was a tailor and his shop is yet standing, occupied by R. M. Mc- Laughlin and Son, Real Estate and Insurance. George A. Withington was a tavern keeper. After his death, Mrs. Withington kept hotel on Main and North Streets, and for a time in the old Riverside Hotel. John Vorhaur was another tavern keeper. He kept in the McMullen house and later in the Riverside. Mrs. Withington was keeping hotel at the corner of First Street and Kiski Avenue during the civil war. When the news of Lee's surrender reached Apollo, one of her daugh- ters seized the dinner bell, rushed out on the upper porch and rang the bell until the good tidings were known by nearly all the town. Among the other business men in times when Main was the chief business street,were Hugh Skiles, Smith Whitworth, James Heron, John Alexander and Robert McKissen. David Watt and John Bair were blacksmiths. John Elwood was a cabinet maker and car- penter. The first separate assessment of the town of Warren, then in Allegheny township, was made in 1830, as follows: John Alford, lot No. 22, 1 horse, 1 h«ad of cattle, total valuation $58. James H. 24 THE HISTORY OF APOLLO. Bell, lot No. 16, 1 house, 1 other lot, $156, Catherine Cochran, lot No. 34, 1 house, 1 head cattle, $31. Robert Cochran, single man, lot No. 9, $25. Andrew Cunningham, lot No. 48, 1 head cattle, $31. Wm. Davis, lot No. 17, 1 house, blacksmith, $91. Philip Dally, No. lot not known, one house, $225. Samuel Gardner, lot, $255. Wm. Graham, lot No. 48, 1 house, 1 head cattle, $31. John Llewellyn, lot No. 4, 1 house, 1 horse, $255. Robert McKissen, lot No. 15, 1 house, 1 head cattle, $106. Alex. McKinstry, lot No. 1, 1 house, $252. Wm. McKinstry, 1 lot and house, $225.50. John Mcllwain, lot No. 2, 1 house, 2 horses, 1 head cattle, $601. Isaac McLaughlin, lot No. 38, 1 house, transferred to John Mcllwain Wm. Mehaffey, half lot No. 25 Peter Risher, lot No. 18, 1 house, 1 horse, $225. John Wort, lots Nos. 5 and 6, 1 house, 1 tanyard, 1 horse, 2 cattle, lot No. 2, unseated, $247. Value of unseated lots from $5 to $40 each. Eight years before the County Treasurer had advertised 25 inlots for sale for taxes, county and road, varying from 5c to 30c a lot. The population in 1850 was 329 whites and 2 colored. Apollo was divided into wards December 13, 1899. Assessed value in 1915, $660,746. Money at interest, $119,- 677.89. Houses, First Ward, 348. Second Ward, 404. Mills, First Ward 1, Second Ward, 2. Horses, First Ward 88, Second Ward, 41. Cows, First Ward, 4, Second Ward, 9. Dogs, First Ward, 51, Second Ward, 45. Taxables, First Ward, 558, Second Ward, 528. Occupations, both wards: Laborers, 186; contractors, 7; carpen- ters, 27; steelworkers, 192; molders, 11; constable, 1; teachers, 2 engineers, 5; conductors, 2; watchman, 5; publisher, 2; reporter, 1 music teacher, 4; druggist, 4; merchant, 35; clerk, 57; teamster, 16 mail carrier, 4; agent, 6; liveryman, 5; milkman, 2; ragdealer, 1 restauranteur, 4; photographer, 2; undertaker, 4; proprietor pool room, 2; butcher 5; printer, 4; retired, 51; woolen man, 2; tinner, 2 machinist, 5; dentist, 3; minister, 9; shoemaker, 3; electrician, 9 real estate, 6; jeweler, 2; newsdealer, 1; miner, 12; telegrapher, 3 attorney, 2; stone mason, 2; manufacturer, 1; janitor, 2; bricklayer, 6; millwright, 5; brakeman, 3; manager, 5; painter, 5; barber, 6 farmer, 4; blacksmith, 12; plumber, 5; architect, 1; physician, 6 student, 2; tailor, 4; salesman, 6; messenger, 1; garageman, 3; post master, 1; justice, 2; cashier, 1; superintendent, 1; roll turner, 5 foreman, 6; bank examiner, 1; bank treasurer, 1; paper hanger, 3 baker, 1; bank president, 2; fireman, 1; assessor, 2. TOWNSHIP AND BOROUGH. A petition from a number of residents of Allegheny Township was presented to the Court Dec. 22, 1831, asking that a new township be formed out of the upper end of the township, to be called Kiski- THE HISTORY OF APOLLO. 25 minetas Township. Philip Klingensmith, John Lafferty and John McKissen were appointed viewers. The Court approved their recommendation June 19, 1832 War- ren was now in Kiskiminetas Township. • . ^I ^^^ ""^ assembly March 15, 1848, Warren was incorporated mto the borough of Apollo. "Be it enacted, &c., that the town of Warren, in the County of Armstrong shall be and the same is hereby erected into a borough which shall be called Apollo." The voters were commanded to meet in the house of John Smith and e ect a burgess and five councilmen. Robert McKissen and Wm McCullough were appointed to publish and superintend the election! to be held May 3, 1848. At this election Robert McKissen was elected burgess and Wm. Nichols, Wm. Miller, George C. Bovard, John T. Smith, John Elwood and David Risher, town councilmen T r/""^ '^.t''^ f tr *^^ ^'^'^^^'^ "^'^^ regularly held at the home of J. 1. Smith and Mrs. Smith always served a turkey dinner to the board. ic^.J^t/""^* ^""^""^ °^ ^^^''''^ directors was elected in the spring of 1850 It consisted of Wm. C. Bovard, John B. Chambers, John T. bmith, Thomas Cochran, Samuel Owens and Hugh M. G. Skiles. ADDITIONS TO BOROUGH. t^.o^r'^^f the "New Addition to Warren," previously mentioned, in 1859 the borough lines were extended taking in a lot of land, a part of which later became vested in John B. Chambers, who laid out 45 lots m this portion in 1865. In 1869 the limits were extended to take in tlie lands of Michael Cochran. James Guthrie laid out a smaller a few lots'' ^""^ ^ '^""'^ ^^"''^ ^^^^' *^''' ^™''" '^'"^y P^^**^^ . T.^^f J%''°'^ ''"'''^ ^' *^^ Laufman Addition formerly belonged to David McLane, who was editor of the Pittsburgh Gazette for sev- eral years.It had been laid out and called the McLane Plot, but few lots were sold and it later became the property of the rolling mill company The last addition to Apollo Borough was made in 1893 It included Oak Hill and a part of Sugar Hollow, now called tileventh Street. Up until 1887 what is now known as Warren Avenue extended south only to First Street. The alley in the original plan was in this year by ordinance widened to 42 feet to South Fifth Street It was also increased to 40 feet from Seventh to Eleventh Street askin^rthl??h^P /nw^TI*^^^^ 5""". inaugurated for several months asKing that the town be divided into wards. There bein^ no obier- tions filed the Court issued a final decree dividing the to^^nto two wards. First ward being south of North Fourth^StreetlSd Second Eif3'Y89'9"an?thr^^ 't '^^^^T" ^^^^ decree was'maSe SeTordered'eSdTo'r eacTward°' '"'^*°" ^"' ^^^^^ ^«"""^-- 26 THE HISTORY OP APOLLO. ORDINANCES. By act of March 12, 1870, the Burgess and Council authorized the levying of a street tax not exceeding ten mills as provided for in act of 1848, It required property owners to pave fronting on streets with brick or stone. In case of financial inability so to pave, at the option of council they were permitted to pave with boards or plank. This ordinance provided that in case property owners failed to pave, the council could authorize the work and enter the cost as a lien against the property. The names of the streets were changed in 1889. North Street became First Street and all cross streets were numbered from this point. The streets running parallel with the river were to be called avenues. According to this nomenclature. Water street became Kis- kiminetas Avenue. Canal Street became Warren Avenue. The other avenues eastward are Pennsylvania (Church St.), Armstrong, Terrace, Woodward and Oak avenues. There are two exceptions. Grove Street has a name, not a number, and the small street running north and south back of E. A. Townsend's is called Crow Street. The avenues westward are Railroad and Clifford. The western ter- minus of N. Fourth Street and the northern terminus of Clifford Avenue were vacated by ordinance in 1891. The Philadelphia plan of numbering buildings was adopted in 1890. An ordinance fixing the proportion of street paving to be paid by the borough was passed in 1897. Apollo Electric Light, Heat & Power Co. was franchised in 1891. Other franchises were Conemaugh Gas Co., 1886. Apollo Gas Co., 1889. Apollo Water Co., 1888. Leechburg and Apollo Electric Railway eranted right of way in 1904, an extension of time for completion of road granted to 1906. An act for the preservation of public health was passed in 1888. THE KISKIMINETAS RIVER. It has been stated that the first mention of this river was by Christopher Gist, Washington's guide, when he was with the Ohio Company. He says "Monday, 12th, Nov., 1750. Set out from Stoney Creek, Crossed a great Laurel Mountain, came to Loyal Hannon, an old town on a creek of the Ohio, called Kiscomina- tis, thence from an Indian town on said creek, &c." In searching history we find that in 1748, two years before, Conrad Weiser set out from what is now Berks County to negotiate with the Indians, who, Geo. Croghan said, were becoming estranged from the French. Weiser was a prominent trader. He was well versed in Indian affairs as he had been adopted by the Mohawks,, When he started on his mission he kept a diary. It will not be ffi Ph THE HISTORY OF APOLLO. 27 necessary to mention more than the stations passed near this local- ity, August 22, 1748, after crossing Allegheny Hills (Mts.) he came to Clearfields, this being at the head waters of Clearfields Creek, a branch of the Susquehanna, in Cambria County. From thence he traveled to the Shawonees Cabbins, 34 miles distant, reaching that point Aug. 23. On Aug. 24 he states that he "found a dead man on the road, who had killed himself drinking too much whiskey. The place being very stony we could not dig a grave. He smelling very strong we covered him with stones and wood and went on our jour- ney." Came to 10 Mile Lick 32 miles (Ten Mile Lick is Spring Church, so called because it was ten miles from the Indian Town Kiskiminetas which was below Pine Run and opposite Shaner's Run.) August 25th, "Crossed Kiskeminetoes Creek and came to Ohio that day, 26 miles." On this route it will be noticed that he took a trail leading across to the Allegheny near Chartiers. Aug 26, he stopped at Shannopins, a Delaware town. Aug. 27, he dined at a "Seneka Town where an old Seneka Woman Reigns with great authority." This was Queen Alliquippa at the Forks of the Ohio. Weiser met the Indian tribes, gave them presents, made them speeches and completing his duties returned. On his way back he mentions "Kiskaminity Creek," and "Round Hole," another name for "Boiling Springs." He states that after traveling 35 miles from this place he came to where they had buried John Quen and found that the bears had pulled him out and left nothing but "a few naked bones and some old rags." It will be noticed that Gist spoke of Kiscominetis as a creek and Loyal Hannon as a town. The Indians often spoke of the stream instead of the town. In their method, the Kittanning meant the river, from Gicht, main and Hanne, Stream. The name Kiskiminetas is given two or three meanings by writers. John McCullough who was a captive, says they came to a river, Kee-ak-kshee-man-nit-toos, meaning "Cut Spirit." Heckewelder, who was an authority on the language, said it meant "Make daylight," being the impatient excla- mation of a warrior in haste to take the warpath. He says it comes from Gieschgumanito. Many of our streams retain their Indian names, but some have been translated into English, yet keeping the Indian significance. Thus of the tributaries of the Kiskiminetas, Conemaugh (Gunamochki) means Otter creek. Loyalhanna (Laweel- hanne) means the middle stream because it is half way between the Juniata and Allegheny. Hanne in Indian means stream. The Indian of Stony Creek is Sinne-hanne. The Indian name for Beaver Dam Creek (Beaver Run) is Amochk-pahasink. It means "where the beavers have shut up the stream." The Kiskiminetas was one of the most im- portant water ways in the state, especially during the salt industry. Its head waters are the Little Conemaugh and Stony 28 THE HISTORY OF APOLLO. Creek. The North and South Forks of the Conemaugh both rise in the Allegheny Mountains, within the limits of Cambria County. These branches merge at South Fork, where on June 1, 1889, the dam burst and caused one of the greatest calamities in the history of the state. Johnstown was destroyed with a loss of 2209 lives. The river is known as the Little Conemaugh until its union with Stony Creek, which rises in Somerset County and runs almost direct- ly North to the confluence. Besides the numerous acquisitions of smaller streams Black Lick rises in Cambria and runs almost parallel with the Conemaugh until below Blairsville, where it empties into the latter. At Saltsburg the Conemaugh and the Loyalhanna unite to form the Kiskiminetas. The Loyalhanna has its source in West- moreland County between Chestnut and Laurel Ridges. The Kis- kiminetas just after receiving the water of Roaring Run makes a steep declination which produces what is known in past histories as the "Big Falls." Here amid the rocks and bars the waters rush and madly swirl for nearly a mile. In early days many lives were lost in these rapids. By Act of March 9, 1791, the river was made a pub- lic highway. In 1811 improvements were made by blasting and removing rocks. At that time channels were made at the shallows and riffles. In 1821, $5,000 were appropriated for the improvement of this stream and five commissioners were appointed to supervise the ex- penditure. In 1828, the river became a part of the great canal sys- tem. Before its contamination by mines, mills and sewers fish were plentiful. The writer remembers an old time "Brush Netting" when hundreds of fish were driven down to the mouth of Beaver Run where a triangular inclosure had been built of stones in the river. A rope was stretched across the stream just below the rapids or Big Falls. Men and boys cut and tied green branches to this rope, mak- ing a brush fence. A team of horses was hitched to each end and by their pulling and men and boys pushing and kicking and shouting the fish were driven down to the angle and caught. The fish were laid in piles and a blindfolded man called out the names for distri- bution. While that was wrong it cannot be compared to the whole- sale poisofiing by factories or mines. The fish were of fine size and quality. Bass, pike, salmon, catfish, perch and many not so de- sirable inhabited the stream. Back in the nineties the fish were all killed. The coal mines are the greatest evil. Mr. H. P. Drake, assistant engineer of State Department of Health thinks that the waste products of the mines will be utilized and all drainage into streams eliminated. It is thought that the by-products will pay for the installation of the system. James S. Painter caught a pickerel with rod and line which weighed 23 pounds. This is the largest catch by that method re- corded. G. W. Wolfe caught one weighing thirteen pounds the day ci H T) THE HISTORY OF APOLLO. 29 before Mr. Painter's catch. H. P. Wood gigged one which weighed 32 pounds. On the same night he and John Jones gigged a catfish which drew 17 pounds. J. P. Wood holds the record for a large spoonfish. There have been many floods in the Kiskiminetas be- sides the Johnstown Flood. A notable one occurred in 1831, when part of Leechburg Dam was swept away. In 1866, Dam No. 2 above Apollo was destroyed. This was a calamity to the town as the Roll- ing Mill was run by water power at that time. Jan., 1881, the Apol- lo toll bridge was carried away. In 1907 the river rose to eighteen inches higher than it did at Apollo at the time of the Johnstown flood. This was the highest in history. REGIONAL HISTORY. There may be something inspiring to read about men dying in battle. The shouts, the rattle of musketry, the roar of artillery and the wild charge tend to make a soldier forget his danger, but when chased by foes as relentless as wolves, the pursued, wild eyed and panting like a hunted deer — such a death is revolting to our sen- sibilities. But of these there were many in the days of the colonies. Such was the death of the unknown man who was pursued for miles up the river until he was overtaken and killed on Chambers' Hill. He was buried a few yards beyond where the road turns toward the Chambers residence on the way from Apollo to Vandergrift Heights. Many of the older residents of town remember the oak tree by which he was buried. For many years wagons turned to either side of the forest marker rather than to fell the tree. Today all that re- mains of his body lies under the new brick road. Such also was the fate of Garver, who was wounded up the little run (Cat Tail Run) which empties into the stream which feeds the new reservoir of the Apollo Water Company. Bleeding, he staggered, half running, half falling up the hill frrom the Enoch Crawford farm to the crest of the hill at the Chambers line. There he fell, was scalped and later his mutilated body buried. His grave was yet to be seen a few years ago. It is said he came from near Arnold on the Allegheny River. On the opposite side of the valley on the Crawford farm there was another grave with a flag stone marker at the head and foot. The history of this grave is unknown. As Linus Townsend writes of the lone grave near Spring Church, 'The lone grave and he who's resting here. Alike by friends and kindred are forgot." HANNASTOWN. On account of local interest it may be pardonable to refer to Hannastown, although it properly belongs to history of Greens- burg. In July, 1782, while a number of residents of this village 30 THE HISTORY OF APOLLO, were engaged in harvesting, Indians were discovered skulking in the woods. The reapers at once retired to the town and hastily gath- ered all the inhabitants into the stockade. Hannastown, it must be remembered, was at that time the county seat of Westmoreland County. It was the first place where justice was administered west of the^ Alleghenies. On this fateful day the prisoners were released from jail and taken into the enclosure along with the rest. James Brison and David Shaw went out to reconnoitre and discovered the enemy to be in superior force. On their return they were pursued by the Indians and Shaw paused long enough to shoot one. Captain Matthew Jack on horseback circled around until he learned that it was useless to attempt to fight such a large force and then gal- loped off to warn the people at Miller's. As the scouts were leaving the Indians came out boldly and attacked the town. Enraged that they had not succeeded in surprising the inhabitants they began to pillage and burn the houses. One warrior dressed in a stolen uni- form of which he was so proud that he attracted much attention and was shot by a man in the fort. There were forty or fifty people in the fort and of these there were but twenty men able to use arms. These were armed with less than a dozen guns as most able bodied men were at the front. This may be said to be the last act of the Revolution in this section. The attacking party seems to have been about forty Canadians and one hundred Indians, who had come down the Allegheny in canoes and disembarked at Kittanning. The people in the fort beat their drums and rode horses back and forth across a bridge to make the enemy believe they were receiving reinforcements. The party fled in the night. They were followed as far as the Kiski- minetas where they crossed the river at the ford where Warren or Apollo, was subsequently located. The only death among the whites was that of Margaret Shaw, who was shot while rescuing a child which had toddled into danger. The Shaws and the Hannas of Apollo are descendants of those of Hannastown. THE UNFINISHED MILLSTONE. On the Saltsburg road, Westmoreland side, a branch road leads from Newton Kennedy's to the Rubright Bridge. In a little ravine a short distance down and to the right lies an unfinished millstone. Ihe gram of the stone is perfect and that it was not finished is told thus: When naught but a wilderness trail led down this hill a grist mill was projected for a site on Beaver Run just below this place, ihe stone cutter had selected this stone and was at work cutting to his Ime when he was killed and scalped by Indians. After this deed the Indians followed down the trail to a cabin near Rubright's cross- ing. The woman of the house who was alone fled at their approach Entering her house the marauders found a lot of newly baked bread which they stole and went their way without searching for her Whether from superstition or sentiment the stone was never fin- ished. Today it stands mutely testifying to the tragedies of our pioneers. THE HISTORY OF APOLLO. 31 THE OLD MILLS. Among the earliest necessities of frontier life was the grist mill. Prior to the use of steam power it was necessary to erect mills on streams easily dammed yet having an abundant and continuous flow. The old mills in this vicinity whose names are perpetuated because of their locations being favorite picnic grounds are the McCartney and Crawford Mills and the one remembered only as "The Burnt Mill Hole." The McCartney Mill was not only a grist mill but a fulling and dyeing mill as well was located there. These were situated on Rattling Run about three miles south of town. This vicinity is yet a well known camping and picnic ground. It is related that the mill- wright who erected the mill was so engrossed in his labor that he forgot his wedding day and was only aroused to the other duties of life by the anxious guests who sought him and reminded him of his waiting bride. Crawford's Mill was located on Pine Run, in Westmoreland County. A blacksmith shop, a tannery and a store were built near by. This mill site, besides being a favorite outing place, was known by the older settlers as the place of "The Haunted Gun," It was told many years ago that an old flint-lock musket lay on a rock. No one could pick it up. On attempting to do so an unseen hand knocked it back upon the rock. There it rested until rot and rust removed what human hands could not. Whether the spirit of a red man or a white stood guard, legend does not say. Up on the face of the cliff bordering the stream was a cave-like opening long un- explored. It was regarded as inaccessible. Of late years several enterprising youths explored it by means of a rope let down from above. It was found to be a room about 10x10 feet, with nothing within to gratify the curiosity of the explorers. In all probability it was a place of refuge in early days. Burnt Mill Hole is another well knoAvn and popular resort for picnics and fishing. It is two miles up Beaver Run Valley. It is so called from a hole or pool — the remains of an old mill dam. The first mill built on this site was burned and the name of the owner has passed into oblivion. The second one owned by Moses Felmlee, was also destroyed by fire. The third mill built a little lower down the creek was erected by Miller Callen and sold to Smith Whit- worth, It was near the "White Bridge." Mr. Whitworth ran the mill by water power for a few years and then removed it to West Apollo, where steam power was installed. The building is used as a bam by Mr. Gianini, of the Belvedere. The scenery around the "Burnt Mill Hole" is picturesque and fishing has been good in times gone by. Further enchantment for the spot lies in the tale told by old settlers of the man who was tortured to death there. All the gruesome details of his cruel death have been rehearsed for the ben- efit of the boys who in turn told their companions as they sat in the deep shade near the stream. The pool is deep and because of an 32 THE HISTORY OF APOLLO. outlet at the bottom there is a whirlpool which sucks floating ob- jects into its depth. Several persons have been drowned in this hole and many believe it is the whirlpool which drags the victims under. The water is not of sufficient volume to do this. The treachery of the pool is in its precipitous sides, which cause the unwary bather to plunge suddenly overhead. INDIAN SPRING. Smith's History of Armstrong County mentions Indian Spring as a place one and one-fourth miles east of Toquhesp, an Indian town which was in the dim past situated near North West Coal mines. This spring can be found more easily by going out from Apollo on the Maysville Road. It may be seen at the head of a little ravine to the left of the road just before coming to the branch which leads up to Horrell's school. Under the guidance of James Kunkle, of Penn- sylvania Ave., a visit was made to this curiosity. It is not the spring but a rock which is the object of attraction. Formerly there was a large sandstone rock which jutted up from beneath the roots of a large chestnut tree. From beneath the rock there g^ushed forth a bounteous stream of clear cold water which formed a rivulet which rippled down the hollow through the forest. Evidently this was a favorite haunt for the redmen, as it is said the large rock was cov- ered with pictures. A smaller rock yet stands to the left of the stream just below the spring. Carved upon it is the crude figure of a man. The head and the body of the man are made deep so as to give the idea of solidity, while the arms and legs are but trac- ings. The hands have but three fingers, the knees are bent as if to represent the figure as walking. A few other tracings are vis- ible, but their import is not known. Owing to the scarcity of build- ing stone in this vicinity the larger rock has been quarried away and the spring is filled with spalls. This carving is doubtless the work of Indians. REGIONAL HISTORY. A short distance above Rock Furnace on the left of Jackson's Run, is a huge boulder six or seven feet high and of irregular shape, so balanced that it can easily be rocked to and fro, but the united efforts of several men cannot displace it. Down below Rock Furnace, just above the first crossing there is a large flat rock which has several pot-shaped holes in it. These are supposed to have been used by the savages as receptacles into which they placed com to reduce it to meal. The spot now known as the Apollo Cemetery was already cleared when the first settlers took up claims here. This tract was on the Samuel McKee farm and had been used by the Indians as a corn field. Many Indian graves were to be seen further up the hollow and a few out on the point. THE HISTORY OF APOLLO. 33 The site of Apollo was the site of an old Indian town, although the name is lost to history. Indian towns were not so stable but that they were often changed. Evidences of campfires, darts, spear- heads, broken pottery, amulets, pipes, beads and tomahawks found here have been too numerous to have been anywhere else than a village. Owens* Hill east of town has been more of a camping place. Hugh Owens says that shortly after the farm came into their pos- session, traces of campfires with charcoal and mussel shells were found at various spots on the top of this knoll. Even yet some spots are darker than others, when the ground is newly plowed. It is not improbable that this high ground was Warren's "Sleeping Place." It was directly on the old Frankstown Trail from east of the mountains. This branch of the trail came via Clearfield, Indiana, passing between South Bend and West Lebanon to Round Hole or Ten Mile Lick, now called Spring Church. From thence it led to "Warren's Sleeping Place" on the Kiskiminetas River. From this place the path led to the old Indian town of Kiskiminetas on the Westmoreland side on this side of Leechburg. This town was situ- ated just below Pine Run, directly opposite the mouth of Shaner's Run. This run has been known as Carnahan's Run, but on Howell's map as Old Town Run. From this place the trail led over the Trout farm to Jack's Island or near Arnold. Robert Walter Smith, al- though a careful historian, was mistaken as to the location of this town and supposed it to have been near Saltsburg. His statement was quoted by the compiler of Frontier Forts of Pennsylvania. There were two towns near Saltsburg. Both history and maps positively locate Kiskiminetas Old Town as stated above. The term "Old Town" was a common name for any of the towns which the Indians had, whether used or abandoned. Above Kiskiminetas Town on the hill was an Indian burying ground. Some of these were explored a number of years ago. Beads and darts were found and Jas. Schall found in one a quartz crystal. A number of years ago when the road from the upper part of Hickory Bottom was being made, Hugh Forbes, then but a small boy, along with another boy about his own size, were present when the work- men came upon a number of Indian graves on the hillside just beyond the present home of Charles Ward. The skeletons were shoveled out indiscriminately and thrown over the embankment. The boys, having an inborn hatred of the savages, piled the bones up and stoned them until broken into fine fragments so that "they would have a hard time getting together on the 'Resurrection Day.' " 34 THE HISTORY OF APOLLO. FORT HAND. This fort is one which belonged strictly to this region. It was built to protect this vicinity, in the fall of 1777. James Chambers was one of the reapers in the oats field in August of that year when they took refuge in John McKibben's large log house on discovering the Indians hid in the woods. They were not attacked then, but the Carnahan Block House was. This block house was only a few miles distant but they were frequently cut off from it. The site of this fort is the same as the present residence of John B. Kerns on Pine Run, about four miles from Apollo on the Pittsburgh road. It was built of logs and had palisades surrounding it. The enclosure con- tained about one acre. Several cabins for the soldiers were within the stockade. A fine spring within supplied the garrison with water. From the finding of cannon balls on the site, it is supposed the fort was supplied with wall guns. McKibben's house was a short dis- tance away and across the creek. The savages had become so vicious that the settlers of Westmoreland were constantly menaced. Col. Lochry had organized a company of sixty men for their pro- tection. He divided this company into four bands of rangers. One of these bands guarded the district between McKibbens and Carna- hans before the building of Ft. Hand. This fort is mentioned as having received thirty men as reinforcements in March, 1778. When Gen. Mcintosh took charge of this western division and arrived in Ft. Pitt, August, 1778, there were but two fixed stations besides Pitt. These were Fort Hand and Ft. Randolph at Wheeling. In the same month of his arrival Capt. Miller of the 8th Pennsylvania, with nine men had taken some grain to Ft. Hand and were surprised by Indians. The Captain and seven men were killed. Col. Brodhead succeeded Mcintosh. He reported the presence of hostile Indians near the fort in April, 1779, and that one was killed. On April 26, a band of hostiles appeared so suddenly that two men who were plowing were compelled to abandon their teams, one of oxen and one of horses. Angered at the escape of the men the Indians killed the oxen and horses, as well as all the cattle they saw. The fort was gar- risoned at that time by only 17 men under Capt, Samuel Moorhead. Sergeant Philip McGraw was in the sentry box at the time of the attack and was wounded. Sergeant McCauley took his place and he was wounded. McGraw lived only a few days. The attack began at one o'clock and lasted until noon of the 27th, There were women in the fort who assisted the men by moulding bullets, using pewter spoons and dishes when the lead ran out. During the night the marauders set fire to the McKibben house and burned it. When the sentry of the fort would call the hours as was the custom, some whites with the Indians would mimic his tones and cry "Is all well now?" One of the soldiers in the fort volun- teered to go to Ft. Pitt for assistance, as it appeared there were at Iz; Q <u ^ O PlH o w o w Q CL, THE HISTORY OF APOLLO. 35 least one hundred of the enemy. He was let out of the gate in the darkness and succeeded in reaching his destination. Forty men were' immediately dispatched to the assistance of the beleaguered fortress. They did not arrive until afternoon and the Indians had left. The name of this hero has not been recorded. The fort was used part of the time at least up till 1791. It was purchased by Francis Kerns, grandfather of the present occupant of the premises. The family has a number of relics found on the place. A pair of rudely made spectacles were found on the site of the McKibben house. Mrs. John Kerns found a stone tomahawk in the garden in 1915. CAPTAIN SHARP'S DISASTROUS JOURNEY. The main points of this description are taken from Smith's His- tory of Armstrong County. The story is somewhat abridged, but is so well told and the authenticity is such that it is deemed best not to vary much from the original narrative. Many persons have lo- cated this disaster wrongly. Besides the investigation by Robert Walter Smith, the writer was told by Harvey Bigham, an old school- teacher of this vicinity, that the tragedy occurred at Gravel Bar. Readings in various histories confirm this. The little run on this side of 'Squire Ray France's residence is the "Two Mile Run" men- tioned in the description. One of the descendants of Capt. Sharp verified this to Mr. Smith. Capt, Andrew Sharp was an officer in the Revolution under Washington. He, with his wife and infant, settled upon a tract of land upon which is now the town of Shelocta, in 1784. After living about ten years on this farm he decided to move to Kentucky, where better schooling for his children could be had. In the spring of 1794 he moved with his family, where he either built or purchased a flatboat, in which he and his wife and six children; a Mr. Connor, wife and five children; a Mr. Taylor, wife and one child, and Messrs. McCoy and Connor, single men, twenty in all, with baggage and household effects, embarked on the proposed voyage down the Kiskiminetas, Allegheny and Ohio Rivers to Kentucky. Low water in Black Lick retarded their progress, but when they reached the Conemaugh they glided down it and the Kis- kiminetas without accident until a point two miles below the Falls of the Kiskiminetas, at the mouth of Two Mile Run, below the present site of Apollo. Capt. Sharp tied the boat and went back after a canoe which had become detached coming over the falls. When he returned the children were gathering berries, the women were preparing supper and the men who led the horses had arrived. A man came along and reported that Indians were near. The women and children were placed on the boat and the men had just about decided to take all the party to the house of David Hall for safety when seven Indians, who were concealed nearby fired upon the men while they were tying the horses. Captain Sharp's right eyebrow 36 THE HISTORY OF APOLLO. was shot off. It is said that Taylor mounted a horse and rode off leaving his wife and child to the protection of the others. Capt. Sharp ran to the boat and was cutting it loose when he was shot in the left side. While cutting the other end loose he was shot in the right side. Nothing daunted, he shoved the boat off and calling to his wife to bring his gun, he shot and killed one of the Indians. The boat whirled round and round while descending the river, the Indians firing whenever the unprotected side was toward them. Baggage had been piled up on one side for breastworks. They fol- lowed the boat twelve miles down the river, commanding the occu- pants to disembark. Mrs. Connor and her eldest son wished to land. The young man called to the Indians to come on the boat, that all the men were wounded. Sharp ordered the young man to desist or he would shoot him. Just then the young man was shot and fell at Mrs. Sharp's feet. McCoy was killed, Mr. Connor, Sr., was severely wounded. Capt. Sharp became so exhausted from loss of blood that his wife was compelled to manage the boat all night. None of the women or children were injured. At daybreak they were within nine miles of Pittsburgh. They signaled to some men on shore who came to their assistance. One of the men preceded the party to the city and secured a physician to attend them. Captain Sharp died July 8, 1794, forty days after he was wounded. Mrs. Sharp became repossessed of her farm on Crooked Creek and returned. She lived fifteen years after the death of her husband. The Indians were supposed to belong to the Six Nations. The following letter regarding this is quaint: Greensburg, June 5, 1794. Chas. Campbell to Gov. Mifflin. Sir, — I Received your Letter of the 24th of May in Regards of stopping of the draught for the Support of Presqu'Isle Station whitch seemeth mutch to alarm the froonteers of our country, as it discovers to the Indians that we are not able to Maintain that Post. The thirtieth of may the Indians fired on A canoe in the Allegany River between the Mouth of the Kiscumenitus River and the Cattan- ian: Killed one man and wounded Two. The evening of the same day, they fired on A Boat that Left my Place to go to Keaintucky, about Two Miles Below the falls of the Kiscumenitus, Killed three Persons and wounded one, whitch was all the men that was in the Boat. The Boat Drifted Down the River till about Twelve Miles above Pittsburgh with the wounded man and the women and Chil- dren, when they were seen By some Persons who went to their as- sistance and Took the Boat to Pgh. I am your Obedient Humble Serv't CHAS. CAMPBELL. Wm. Jack also wrote Gov. Mifflin relating the same affairs say- ing Capt. Sharp's boat was attacked on the Kiskiminetas River near Chambers' Station. THE HISTORY OF APOLLO. 37 LEGENDARY. The late Wm. Trout, a local historian of note, was of the opinion that Warren was an Indian chief. His story is that White Mattock, Warren and Shelocta were all Indians who had taken out patents for land after the manner of the white man. White Mattock had taken up the site of Leechburg. Credit to this is given in Smith's History of Armstrong Co. Warren was said to have owned all the bottom lands a part of which constitutes the Allison farm. Shelocta was the holder of the land upon which the town of She- locta is built. White Mattock had a son , Warren and Shelocta had daughters. There it is, that everlasting triangle of trouble, two of one sex and one of another. White Mattock's son had made love to the pretty daughter of Warren and his affection was returned. The young brave, however, met Shelocta's daughter. She too was a comely maiden and the son of White Mattock, after the manner of the whites again, paid court to her. Warren's daughter persuaded the vacillating lover to take a stroll along the hills of the Kiskiminetas to talk it over. They wandered on until they reached a cliff of great height near Leechburg's site. The young warrior was obstinate to the maiden's pleading, suddenly she felt all her red blood boil and she turned with a fierceness unexpected and shoved him over the declivity. As he fell he grasped her girdle and together they went over "Lovers' Leap." Mr. Trout was of the opinion that the grave dug up by workmen in East Vandergrift was the grave of Warren, he being buried on that side of the river to hide it from desecration by the whites. It is told elsewhere that a grave of unusual construction was found by workmen while excavating a cellar for Mr. Hunger. A flat stone constituted the bottom of this rude vault. A row of stones formed a wall around this. The body of the Indian had been placed in this along with his flintlock gun and some beads and shells. Over the now eyeless skull was a mirror. Another large stone covered this last resting place of some important savage. This grave was discovered Oct. 14, 1908. Our local Poet and Historian, Linus Townsend gives another version of how this site became "Warren's Sleeping Ground." Brief- ly stated, it is as follows: In 1772, ten years before the destruction of Hannastown, Isaac Townsend and James Warren settled in the Kis- kiminetas Valley. The former up near Salina and the latter at this place. James Warren built a cabin on what is now the Jackson home and was rearing his little family in the manner of all frontiersmen. The noted scout, Bob Hanna, from Westmoreland Co. came one day to see Warren and found to his horror, that Warren, his wife and six children were slain and scalped by the Indians. The little cabin had been burned. He notified Isaac Townsend and they with "Corny" Hildebrand hurried the unfortunate family in a grave where they were slain. History will not sustain this legend. "Corny" Hildebrand was born. 38 THE HISTORY OF APOLLO. 1786. He died in 1849 aged 62 years and 9 months. Had he been even a small boy at the time specified the tragedy would have occured near the year 1800. Besides this discrepancy of age, history states that this was "Warren's Sleeping Place" before 1732. In the Archives of Pennsylvania it is listed as such in 1768. CARNAHAN'S BLOCKHOUSE. Notwithstanding this fort was situated nearer to Salina, it is fit- ting to mention it because of the linking of the lives of the refugees there with the citizens of Apollo. In early days there was a cham of places of protection in this region, Ft. Ligonier, Carnahan's Block- house, Ft. Hand, Ft. Crawford (at Parnassus) and Ft. Pitt. In Aug- ust 1777, six or seven men were reaping oats about six miles from Carnahan's. One of the men had wounded a deer and while search- ing for it in the woods near by, discovered Indians in warpaint. With- out giving any sign of having seen them, he returned to the reapers and they all went to John McKibben's house near where Ft. Hand was built the ensuing winter. They sent messengers to Carnahan's to warn them of the presence of hostile Indians. The next day the^ sav- ages plundered several houses, among them, James Chambers' log cabin. The people at Carnahan's seeing nothing of the enemy sent Robert Taylor and David Carnahan to McKibben's to learn something about the alarm. On their return they had nearly reached the block- house when they saw several Indians stealthily approaching. Making a dash they succeeded in reaching the fort a few minutes ahead of their pursuers. Only a few men were in the fort and there were fourteen of the attacking party. John Carnahan opened the door and stepped out to get a better shot at the enemy and was himself shot and killed. The door was hastily barred and the defenders were able to keep the Indians at some distance. James Jackson, a boy of thir- teen moulded slugs for the men. Jimmie, as he was called, was gathering firewood. Some of the children shouted "Indians" and ran for the fort. As he had been fooled before, he did not look around but proceeded leisurely with his load. Suddenly his mother appeared and screamed "Run, Jimmie, run'" Looking back he saw the savages rushing toward him. He did run then and just as he passed into the door, a tomahawk buried its blade in the door cheek. Whether his father, John Jackson, was in the blockhouse at this time is not stated. John Jackson and his wife, Agnes, were settlers north of the Kiskiminetas prior to the Declaration of Independence. Their young- est child, Nancy, was born on the first of July, 1776. As far as can be learned, Mrs. John Jackson was the first white woman to live on this side of the river and Nancy was the first white child born m this valley. She was married in 1798 to Wm. Hill. Her grandson is R. B. McKee, of Freeport. David Hall was married to a Jackson. It was INDIAN ROCK. (Picture by T. J. Henry.) THE HISTORY OF APOLLO. 39 at Hall's house where Captain Sharp and his company intended to take refuge when the Indians attacked them at Gravel Bar. James Jackson was the grandfather of S. M. Jackson and came from Ireland when James was only six or seven years old. The Jacksons first settled in Chester County, and later in Hannastown. From thence they came to this neighborhood and were the first settlers north of the Kiskiminetas. Evidently they were com- pelled to return to Hannastown for a time for they were at that place when it was destroyed. Nancy Jackson Coleman who is a grand- daughter of Jas. Jackson says that during the attack on the block- house, something got wrong with Mr. Carnahan's gun and he pulled the rifle from under the dead body of his son and successfully defend- ed the fort almost alone as most of the men who had been in the fort were out scouting. Carnahan's Blockhouse is of further interest because Col. Archi- bald Lochry's company rendezvoused there July 24, 1781, prior to their vain attempt to join Clark's ill fated expedition against Detroit. Lochry had 100 Westmorelanders. They were to join Genl. Clark at Wheeling. When they arrived Clark had left with instructions for them to follow. In doing this they were surprised and all killed or captured. Jos. Brant and George Girty were in command of the Indians, Mohawks, Iroquois and Shawnees. A Shawnee sank his tomahawk in Col. Lochry's brain after he was captured. Forty West- morelanders were slain. A number were never heard from. About 20 after many adventures finally returned. Among those who never re- turned was Wm. Thompson, who has a great many descendants in this community, one daughter marrying James Jackson, another Wm. Mc- Kinstry. The widow of Wm. Thompson married Nathaniel McBrier (Mc- Bryar), grandfather of Dr. Wm. McBryar. LOCAL TALES. Mention of Jas. Jackson's pioneer life has already been made. Besides him Wm. Kerr was one of the early settlers in Kiskiminetas Twp. Wm. Kerr's log house was on the same site as the present res- idence of W. F. Whitlinger on the State Road. At one time Mrs. Kerr was obliged to hide from the Indians while her husband was away. At the time that Captain Sharp and his crew were attacked by the savages at Gravel Bar, the Jacksons and the Kerrs went to Carnahan's blockhouse. Mrs. Kerr rode horseback carrying a three- day old baby. Three cousins of Mrs. Kerr visited them. These had been captured by Indians and traded from tribe to tribe. They did not like to talk about their experience. They had all been compelled to run the gauntlet. The brother and one sister succeeded the first time in eluding the most of the blows. The other sister was not so lucky and was forced to run a second time to save her life. Another brother who had not been captured, vowed he would kill an Indian to 40 THE HISTORY OF APOLLO. get even for the abduction of his kin. Peace was declared before he had an opportunity to get revenge. There is a little ravine leading up from T. C. Kerr's residence toward the Jackson farm. At that time it was thickly wooded. There was a deer lick at the head of this ravine. This vengeful cousin was hunting up this hollow when he espied an Indian up on a mulberry tree. He did not regard the peace but fired and the redskin dropped. The deed done he became panicky and fled to his uncle's. When later he ventured to the place he saw no trace of the savage and supposed he was only wounded. The Kerrs frequently fed strolling groups of Indians after peace was made. Once just after eating, one of them went away for a short distance and returned with a supply of lead. Such instances caused some to believe the Indians knew of hidden mines. The occurences of this kind were common throughout the country. It was the custom of the savages to hide their supplies in convenient places. This they did with lead, flint and darts. Thus it is that there is scarcely a valley in the state but that has its tale of a hidden mine. THE NAME WARREN. History is fact, not romance, and however much we may desire to cherish the legend about Warren and the Indian Chieftain whose dust lies in a secret grave, or Warren the interpreter, beloved by red and white, or the unfortunate settler who with his family was slain by the savages on this site, history must be written as made. This site has been variously called Warren's Sleeping Groves, Warren's Sleeping Ground and Warren's Sleeping Place. Austin applied for it under the latter name. Francis Silver applied for it April 7, 1769, designating it "Warren's Sleeping Groves." In order to understand just how the name originated, it must be remembered the Indians and traders did not wander aimlesly through the forests, but there were trails with stopping places as well known as the stations on our railroads. At first they were foot trails, later they were widened for horses. Traders in those days were licensed and had certain places where they met the Indians and trappers to barter for pelts. Some of these traders had special places where they slept. Sometimes the sleeping place was a teepee of saplings and bark, sometimes an abandoned cabin, at others even a hollow log or a dug out. There were many of these places all through this region. After the settlement of the country and the abandonment of trails there was nothing to keep up the name and it was forgotten. The fact that a town was built on this site is the only reason for the per- petuation of the name. At the time the white settlements were on the east of the Susquehanna River, John Harris established a trading post and a ferry at the site of Harrisburg. The Indians objected to his locating on their side but as he treated them well, the protests THE HISTORY OF APOLLO. 41 ceased. He has handed down a list of stations or points on the trail which is the most interesting to the people of Apollo. The trail spok- en of is that which led over the Allegheny Mts. from Harris' Ferry to the Forks of the river (Pittsburgh) and the stations on this side of the mountains will be sufficient. The distances given are from Al- legheny Hills to Clearfield 6 miles. To John Hart's Sleeping Place (near Carrolltown) 12 miles. To Shawnese Cabins, (near Cherry Tree), 24 miles. To Shaver's Sleeping Place (at forks of Two Lick Creek) 12 miles, To 18 mile Run, 12 miles, to Round Hole or Ten Mile Lick (Spring Church) 6 miles, to Kiscomenetas Town on the creek which empties into the Allegheny, 10 miles. To Chartiers Landing, 8 miles, from thence along the Allegheny to Pittsburgh. C. A. Hanna in "Wilderness Trail" says: "The trail (Allegheny Path) crossed the Kiskiminetas Creek at the mouth of Carnahan's (Shan- er's) Run and also perhaps one mile below Apollo at the outlet lock. Apollo was formerly Warren. The fact that the name was permitted to be changed shows a lamentable lack of taste on the part of the in- habitants. Edward Warren was an Indian trader at Allegheny before 1732. He was in the employ of Peter Allen, a trader on the Ohio. Warren had his sleeping place here just before he crossed the river on his way to "The Forks." He did not die here but went East in 1732 and there gave evidence of the building of forts by the French. It will be remembered that the English were just awakening to the pur- pose of the French in Western Pennsylvania. A thorough investiga- tion was made concerning their trespassing in 1733. In justification of the change of name, the citizens had little to do with it. That they have a proper appreciation of history is in- stanced by their naming the principal avenue for Warren and an- other for Col. Armstrong. BURIAL OF WARREN This was written in 1881 by Robert A. Henry who was under the impression that Warren was an Indian interpreter. Glorious Autumn's golden tint Upon the forest trees is placed, For Nature ne'er doth Autumn stint Of beauty's power: Power to win the heart at sight Where e'er that golden tint is traced In gloomiest hour. Limpid the river flows along Bathing the banks by willows lined, Murmuring sounds as sweet as song Of maid at eve. What now disturbs the music tone 42 THE HISTORY OF APOLLO. Of waves that down the channel wind, Who here can grieve? Louder and louder comes a wail, Louder and louder, yet more clear, Oh list, hear it ye cannot fail, A wail of woe. It is the Indian funeral drum Mingling with human sounds we hear- Why is it so? Splendid the sun shines on the scene Upon a mixed and wondrous throng That moves in forest chrome and green In solemn mood. Come they to lay a chieftain low Who lately led his tribe along — Some man of blood? No, no, yet wonder not they mourn, A peaceful man has passed away, A soul by trials overworn Has passed from earth. And warrior tribes are mourning now As 'neath the sod they place his clay, They knew his worth. And here the Mohawk warrior walks. The dark Cayuga by his side, And haughty Delaware proudly stalks, All, all at peace. The Shawnee and Oneida braves All decked in beaded pomp and pride, Now strife must cease. The wiry Frenchman here we see Keenly alert with cunning glance, The English, Scotch and Irish free. All here today. All mourning that a good man's gone And in the burial train advance To hide his clay. OLD OUTLET LOCK HOUSE. (Picture by T. J. Henry.) THE HISTORY OF APOLLO. 43 Why should they grieve so much for him? Ah they all knew his influence well And e'en the warriors' eyes grew dim When Warren died. The red man knew he'd lost a friend And felt his savage bosom swell But not with pride. Ever that spot should sacred be Where they have laid his form to rest And cherished e'er by memory That spot renowned, Where low they laid the peaceful man Ne'er more by wars to be distressed, "His Sleeping Ground." INDIAN ARROWHEADS Frequent mention of the finding of Indian implements and pot- tery has been made. The pottery was simple in construction, being baked. In some cases a row of indentations or a line was drawn around. A few of the pots had lugs upon the side. The skinning stones, celts and tomahawks were made by a process of rubbing and chipping. The flinthead or dart is the most puzzling. Many descrip- tions of how they have been made have been published. Few of these agree. They are not made of genuine flint as this is not found in America. Most of the specimens found here are of jasper, quartzite or obsidian. The material for these was brought from the South or West. In Redbank Twp. in this county there is said to be a vein which had been worked by the Indians and that an arrowhead factory was near by. Most writers agree that the flakes of material used in the making of these points were obtained by building fires on the original rock and then throwing water on the heated surface. This would produce the spalls. These are then taken and by a systematic boring motion with a sharp instrument or by the striking of a chisel- like tool the scales are successively thrown off until the dart or spear- head is shaped. The boring tool had either a point of ivory or the tooth of an animal. The chisel was of some hard substance as agate. These shaped heads were fastened in the split ends of arrow shafts or spears by wrapping with rawhide or tendons. These shrink tight when dry. Some say the Indians further secured them by glue made from boiled antlers. Gordon Hulings, a former citizen of Apollo, told the writer that an old Indian told his grandfather that the flintheads were made as follows, — The spalls were procured by fire as noted above. Two small spalls were then fastened into either end of a flex- ible green sprout. By bending this a pair of crude tongs were made. With these another spall was placed in a fire until heated. This was 44 THE HISTORY OF APOLLO. withdrawn and by touching successive spots with a sharp stick wet on the point small scales were caused to fly off the fragment until the head was shaped. Arrowheads are classified by collectors according to shape into notched, stem, leaf and triangular. In the writer's col- lection, most of which were picked up on the Allison farm, may be seen all these shapes. There is a pipe with some attempt at orna- mentation which was found by James Foster at Eldersridge thirty years ago. A skinning stone and a celt were taken out of the crevice of the rock by Linus T. Henry when the foundry was being built at Vandergrift. DR. ROBERT McKISSEN. Dr. McKissen came to the village of Warren prior to 1820 from the country somewhere along Blacklegs Creek a few miles from Salts- burg. He opened up a small store on Main Street on the lot best known now as the R. O. Hunter property. He sold both groceries and drugs and practiced medicine. He did some surveying in his spare time. After the canal was in operation he purchased an inter- est in a packet line. He was the author of two volumes of poems. The first volume was printed by Butler & Lambdin, Pittsburgh, and was issued in 1820. The second volume was published in 1829. A copy of each volume is in the possession of T. J. Henry. Robert McKissen was born in the North of Ireland. He came to this country while yet a youth and entered the old Jefferson College at Cannonsburg, Pa. He was probably graduated therefrom but the records of W. & J. College do not go back further than 1824. His knowledge of Latin and Greek was better than the average as is shown by the dedication of his poems in the former and his translations of Ovid's Metamor- phosis. If he ever attended Medical College he makes no allusion to it in his writings. He probably read medicine under some doctor and began practice at once as was permitted at that time. In 1835 he es- tablished the first newspaper in the Kiskiminetas Valley. It was called the Warren Lacon and the first number was issued Nov. 6th. It contained but little local news except marriages and deaths. The rest of the space was taken up with solid reading on various subjects and advertisements. It was all home print. Dr. McKissen was ed- itor and proprietor and Jerry Murphy was compositor. Jerry Murphy was succeeded by Robert Shannon. The printing office was on Main (S. Second) Street on the comer of the R. O. Hunter lot and was not torn down until 1906. The Warren Lacon was published for several years and was aided by state printing which was procured through the influence of Gov. Wm. F. Johnston who was a personal friend of McKissen. He published some small books, among them a child's primer. He was irascible and often very sarcastic. He was a Seceder by profession. When at church in the old stone building, if a sermon I— I ;;• o H C J R e_i o ffi t; 0) 3 :j: >~t «< tJ^ W f-'^ K >^ r > n o :z; THE HISTORY OF APOLLO. 45 did not suit him, he would mutter his disapproval and go down to the Methodist Church for the rest of the services. His next issue of the Lacon would contain a very caustic review of the sermon. The Rev. Hineman once went to remonstrate with him for some criticism and the doctor became so enraged that he would have caned the minister had he not beat a hasty retreat. He was a lover of books and frequently brought a number from Philadelphia when he went to buy goods. These he would distribute among the young men about the village and encourage them to read. Of two young men who greased their hair, he said they were too sleek and he never offered them reading matter. His favorite resort for writing and resting was up the little ravine in Paulton just above J. J. Orr's house. He married Ellen Patterson and had two daughters who were married at an early age, Letitia to Jas. Heron and Eliza Jane to Hugh Skiles. He was in partnership with them in stores at different periods. When the village of Warren was incorporated as the Borough of Apollo, in 1848, in May of that year he was elected Burgess. He went to Blue Grass, Scott Co., Iowa with his sons-in-law. He died at that place, on what date is not now known here. His first volume of poems is dedicated to Hon. John Young. His preface begins as follows: "Conscious that the following poems will meet with the censure of critics and the sneer of the vulgar, I just advertise that I am ready to bear the anticipated shock; knowing well there is abundant ground for both." Dr. McKissen once erect became a hunchback through spinal dis- ease and probably this may account for the biting sarcasms in which he at times indulged. The following selections are from the first volume of his poems. The first is an undoubted imitation of Bums' "Address to the Tooth- ache." To a Copperhead that Bit the Author. "Destruction sieze your venom sting; You cursed, hatefu' crawling thing. That can sic wofu' tortures bring Wi' bitter pain. An' can sic wretched poison fling Thro' ev'ry vein." On Returning to the Place of My Former Residence "Hail! Blacklegs Stream, to me well known. Where all my youthful days have shone; Where juvenile hours oft I spent And blest with gleams of sweet content. But, O alas! how moments fly And prospects vanish from the eye, 46 THE HISTORY OF APOLLO. We grasp at shadows, empty, vain, And phantoms follow o'er lifes plain Pursuing ignis fatuus flight 'Til folded round with gloomy night; On dreadful fate these mortals press In vain pursuing earthly bliss. Yet still I love thy gurgling rill As winding on thro' many a hill, Or moving swift, or slowly glide 'Till lost in Kiskiminetas' tide." One verse from "Man Was Born to Die." "Thus nature yields to nature's God; Thus fall the just and brave. Nor art one moment's life can add When fate points to the grave. Thus fleeting time's still on the wing And death pursuing nigh. Nor spares the plebeian nor the king. But proves that all must die." The following epitaphs deserve mention: "A Quack's Epitaph." "Here lies a quack beneath the clay, Took many a worthy life away. The sexton sore his death may rue, For now he gets no work to do." A Lawyer's Epitaph. "Here lies the man took ev'ry plan The poor to cheat and fleece; If all his sort would here resort. The land might soon have peace." A Preacher's Epitaph. "Here lies the man in silent clay. Long pointed out the proper way; But like the index on the road, Ne'er went the path that he had show'd." POETRY. Altho a number of citizens have written communications in meter on various occasions, but three have published their efforts in book form. Mention of Dr. McKissen's poems is made in his biography. Linus Townsend, a local historian as well as poet published in 1883, his book of "Original Poems." A number of his subjects were local as is the following: THE HISTORY OF APOLLO. 47 THE APOLLO BRIDGE Auspicious the morn, but with tears we encounter The sad, sombre change that's come over our dream; Apollo alone, in its glory triumphant, Pauses in sorrow to witness the scene. Its picturesque beauty, late sadly impressive. Like a phantom of night it has silently flown; The old bridge with its fame of traditional story, A mass of wrecked debris forever has gone. The pillars that carried its time honored arches Stand isolate, — toys of the wind and the tide. And are sadly rebuked by the floes of bleak Winter As o'er the proud waves they triumphantly ride. No more will the lovers of artistic beauty Behold its quaint outlines as they pass in the train. Nor will the boy with his erratic wheelbarrow Patrol in his glory its casement again. No more with the mail pouch and its sacred treasure Will he trip in its shade with his heart full of glee For it's making a trip of its own too, by water To fill the last page of its lone destiny. For thirty long years we've extolled it with pleasure Looming in view with a beauty untold. But now in our hearts with the saddest forebodings. Its wrecked lonely piers we only behold. Mrs. Annie E. Smith, a former citizen of Apollo, while a resident of Pittsburgh, published "In the Summer of St. Martin" and "Club Poems." Mrs. Smith was President of the Woman's Club of Pitts- burgh in 1907-8, Honorary President of "The Woman's Club of Kiski- minetas Valley" and Chairman of Library Extension Work Among the Negroes of the Southern States. The following is from her vol- ume of Club Poems: APOLLO'S FOUNTAIN. Come to this fountain and drink 'Twill wash from your bodies all strife; This sparkling wine flows in every clime, And is God's own elixir of life. 'Tis pure as the dews of the mom Baptizing the young spring grass; It will slake thirst of the weary-bom Who empty the cup as they pass. 48 THE HISTORY OF APOLLO. Come to this fountain and drink Thou toilers of man's behest; And with thankful neigh as you pass away Carry content in your tired breast. Come to this fountain and drink Songsters of every clime, With fluttering wings on the brink, Warble cantos in every rhyme. Thus in endless forms and ways As this liquid of life you drink; You bring untold joy to the Woman's Club, So drink every creature, drink. Born here in our gift today Is one secret of life to live — Not for ourselves is the water of life, We live but we live to give. GALA DAYS. Notwithstanding the panic and the "Big Fire" in 1876, Apollo people pulled themselves together and had a big celebration on the Fourth, glorious in its Centennial. On July Fourth, 1888 a great celebration was given by the Apollo Patriotic and Industrial Association. S. M. Nelson, Pres., M. H. Cochran, Sec'y, R. F. Orr, Treas. Members of Committee — M. E. Uncapher, Geo. G. McMurtry, Jas. H. Cooley, Walter Sutton and J. Y. Lauffer. Chief Marshall, James Kirkwood. Programme: bands, races, ball games, fantastics and fireworks. In 1889, the Junior Order of American Mechanics, then a very strong organization, gave a big picnic and parade. On the same day the organization presented the Apollo Public Schools the first flag to float over the school building. A flag pole had been prepared and the Red, White and Blue was raised with great ceremony. In 1897 another grand Fourth of July celebration was held, but Old Home Week was the crowning effort of all. This was held in 1907. Space will not permit of a detailed description of this "Gathering Homeward From Every Land" and the reunions of friends and rel- atives, often after many years. W. D. Boyce, of Chicago, Logan Truxall, of DuBois and James S. Whitworth of Vandergrift made ap- propriate addresses. THE HISTORY OF APOLLO. 49 OLD HOME COMING. By Mrs. M. J. Guthrie. Written for Old Home Week. They are gathering in the gloaming And they're whispering soft and low, Those who peopled old Apollo In the time of long ago. They'll be seeking for the homesteads And the rippling waters flow, Where their tiny feet once wandered, In the time of long ago. They'll be looking for the graveyard And the meeting house of stone. Where it stood 'mid shafts of marble Grizzled, gray and all alone. They'll be looking for the crossing O'er old Kiski's pebbly bed, With its span of giant woodwork Numbered now among the dead. They'll be looking for their neighbors. When the evening shadows fall, They'll be smiling in their slumbers When they hear their loved ones call. Stilled the voices, though they're speaking Of the days that have gone by, And we'll hear the soft low murmur From beyond the star-lit sky. We'll be sure to speak in kindness Of each shadow on us cast, And we'll give a hearty handshake To our neighbors of the past. 50 THE HISTORY OF APOLLO. The program for Apollo's Centennial is appended. CENTENNIAL WEEK PROGRAM (Subject to any changes that seem necessary later on.) Sunday, July 2, 1916. Special services in all churches, 10 a. m. Union services in grove, 3 p. m. "Holy City," 8 p. m. Monday, July 3, 1916. Registration — Ringing of Bells — Blowing of Whistles, 9:00 a. m. Reception, 2 p. m. Automobile Parade, 3 p. m. Campfire and Band Concert, 8 p. m. Tuesday, July 4, 1916. Parade, 9:30 a. m. Baseball 10:30 a. m. Historical Pageant, 2:30 p. m. Humorous Races, 4:30 p. m. P'ireworks, 8:30 p. m. Wednesday, July 5, 1916. Track Meet, Field Meet, Tennis Tournament, 9 a. m. Baseball, 2 p. m. Entertainment (Lecture Course) 8 p. m. Thursday, July 6, 1916. Industrial Parade, 9:30 a. m. Picnic, 11 a. m. Speaking and music, 2 p. m. Historical Evening, 8 p. m. Choral Club, 8 p. m. Farmers' Day. Friday, July 7, 1916. Visits to neighboring towns and local industries, 9 a. m. Re- unions and conventions, 10 a. m. Pageant, 2 p. m. Dance 9 p. m. Saturday, July 8, 1916. Fantastic Automobile Parade 10 a. m. Baseball, 2 p. m. Ringing of bells to close, 6 p. m. Reunions. Churches or organizations planning reunions are asked to report all such to Chairman of Committee on Reunions, so that conflicting dates may, as far as possible be avoided. <v o ^ o ^ H ■> o ° > >> ^ o d w Pi THE HISTORY OF APOLLO. 51 THE SALT INDUSTRY. Salt is such a common commodity now that many do not realize its physiological and preservative value. In the Youghiogheny region in 1790 it was so scarce that 20 bushels of wheat was the price for one bushel of salt. In 1800 a great deal of our salt came from Ken- tucky in barrels about one-third larger than barrels of the present day. These sold in Pittsburgh for $14 per barrel and retailed for 12 to 18 cents a quart. In 1779 salt was so expensive that Continental Congress passed resolutions controlling the price. In this region salt was packed over the mountains on horseback and commanded $5 a bushel. About 1812, an old lady Mrs. John Deemer, great grand- mother of Mrs. Ella Deemer Painter, of Warren Avenue, living above the present site of Saltsburg, noticed that cattle frequented a spring in the middle of the river during low water. She tasted the water and found it had a brackish taste. She then boiled some mush in it and found it palatable. This becoming known. Dr. Samuel Talmage, (grandfather of Mrs. Mary A. Henry, of North Fourth Street) who was then practicing at Broad Fording near there, puddled a barrel in the spring and placing spouts he succeeded in running the water to shore. He used the large iron or sap kettles to evaporate the water and thus was made the first salt in the valley. This could be done only when the river was low, but was continued all summer. Wm. Johnston, who lived at that place conceived the idea of trying to strike the stream along the shore. Carrying out this idea he rigged up a spring-pole and drill. About the latter part of 1812 or the be- ginning of 1813 he struck a good salt well at the depth of 280 feet. It took about a year to drill a well. The news spread and soon other wells were put down. At first a spring pole arid tramp treadle were used for drilling and the water evaporated in sap kettles with wood for fuel. Later large shallow pans 10x20 feet were used over furn- aces. The wells were three inches in diameter for the first 200 feet and two inches the rest of the depth. Copper tubing was used and bags of linseed meal were packed around this to prevent other water from reaching the salt stream. At first the Johnston well made $30 a day. It took 30 gallons of water to produce a bushel of salt. The wells were pumped by horse power at first but steam was soon intro- duced for both drilling and pumping. On the old plan it is said that it took eight men three years to drill a well 500 feet at Sewickly. The excitement in the valley was similar to the oil excitement in Western Pennsylvania in later years. It was for the time being one of the most important regions in the state. There was no town at this place at the beginning of the salt industry, but later this town was built as was the town of Saltsburg and took its place as a mart. The Gordon salt wells were at Gravel Bar. John and Isaac Mc- Laughlin had wells across the river near the site of the Hick's Mines. Boggs and Anderson had good producers above town at Cow Bell Riffle on the Westmoreland side. At one time Silverman owned these. 52 THE HISTORY OF APOLLO. This riffle was very shallow and was used as a fording. The road which led from the Armstrong side continued to the wells and thence up over Callen's point toward Saltsburg. It used to be told that an Indian had rung a cowbell and thus lured a woman to her death at this place but the name was given it because of the tinkling of the bells as the herd crossed the river for pasture. McCauley and Trux had wells at Roaring Run. Gamble and had wells yet further up the stream. These were run for many years after most of wells were forgotten. Dr. Talmage becoming interested in salt wells, came to the Boggs & Anderson works in 1826 where he also practiced med- icine on either side of the river thus identifying himself with the early history of Warren. Later he and Wm. Henry employed John Cowan, Sr., (J. Wes Cowan's grandfather) to drill wells for them at the site of the old Kiskiminetas Indian town. This place they called Hope Salt Works. The wells being productive they worked them for twenty years. The salt at first was shipped to Pittsburgh and other points in flat or keel boats. When the canal was constructed, Warren became a prominent shipping point. In 1830 Armstrong Co. produced 65, 500 bushels of salt at an average price of $2.50 per bushel. THE CANAL. In 1824 the Assembly appointed three commissioners to explore a canal route from Philadelphia to Pittsburgh. The Union Canal con- nected the Schuylkill with the Susquehanna. The State ordered the new canal to start near Middleton at the terminal and build to the mouth of the Juniata and from Pittsburgh to the mouth of the Kis- kiminetas. The object was to make the Juniata and the Kiskiminetas navigable by slackwater produced by dams. In the Fall of 1827, water was first let into the levels at Leechburg. This was at dam No. 1 or Seven Mile Dam, so called because it produced seven miles of slackwater reaching to the fording north of Apollo, where it was necessary to begin a canal to get the boats above the Falls of the Kiskiminetas. The main canal from Philadelphia to Pittsburgh was completed in 1831. There were 126 miles of railroad and 292 miles of canal at a cost of $35,000,000. The first canal boat ever built or run on the Pennsylvania canal west of the mountains was the "Gen- eral Abner Lacock." It was built by Philip Dally under the auspices of Patrick Leonard. The boat was named after Genl. Abner Lacock who was Supervisor of the Western Division. It was built near the abutment of the bridge, launched in the river, floated down to the out- let lock where it was run into the canal. It was intended for freight and passengers and had berths and curtains after the style of steam- boats. Milton Dally was captain of this boat and John B. Chambers captain and owner of the first line of packets which plied between Apollo and Pittsburgh. S. M. Jackson was succeeding captain of this line. John Kelly was another boat captain and also a sub supervisor THE HISTORY OF APOLLO. 53 from Johnston to Pittsburgh. The canal was four feet deep and forty feet wide. Locks were 16 feet wide and 90 feet long. The dam at Leechburg was 27 feet high and 574 feet long. The boats on this waterway were classified as packets, line, section and transient boats. The crew consisted of five, two steersmen, two drivers and one bows- man, the captain and cook completed the outfit. The motor power of the boats consisted of six mules, three in service at a time, traveling on the tow path. In 1834, Thos. Caruthers made an attempt to run a canal boat, the "Adaline," by steam. It made one trip from Pittsburgh to Johns- town but was unsatisfactory in many ways. The canal was a prodig- ious undertaking at that period of our history. It required an aque- duct of eight piers and two abutments to carry the canal across the riv- er at Freeport. The canal at Apollo was called the Warren or Three-Mile Level, being three miles from the outlet lock to the dam at Roaring Run. The canal bridge at Apollo was built at the foot of North St. and diverted the traffic from Main Street. There were several foot bridges. A floating bridge was the means of crossing to the mill. It was swung to one side to permit boats to pass. The others permitted them to pass under. Dam No. 2 was at Roaring Run and had a guard lock to pass the boats in and out of the canal. The Western Division was 103 miles long. It had 666 feet of fall to overcome which took 64 locks and 20 miles of slackwater. From Johnstown to Hollidaysburg it required the portage system. It was 36 miles. This distance had eleven levels, ten inclines and one tunnel. Charles Dickens passed through Warren on a boat in 1842, (See his American Notes) and after the Mexican War, Zachary Tay- lor's war horse was sent East by this route. A regiment of soldiers for the Mexican War passed through here from the eastern part of the state. There were three locks at Warren. Two at the outlet and one near the site of the Apollo Steel Works. The outlet lock was the scene of many sad partings when the soldiers went to the civil war. Where the boats put out into the river at that point was where the good-byes, many of them the last, were said. When the P. R. R. was built in 1864 the canal was purchased by that Company and later abandoned. Most of the soldiers who went away on the boats returned on the railroad. On August 19, 1899, the 14th reunion of Old Boatment was held in Apollo. There were 80 members present. Capt. Peter Burkey, of St. Paul, Minn., came to preside. He began life as a cabin boy at the age of 14. He was captain of a freight boat for David Leech and son, of Leechburg. At the present writing there are but two in Apollo who belong to the Old Boatmen, Alex Miller and Aunt Nan Jack. The latter as the wife of Captain Carnahan lived and cooked on his boat. The youngest "Old Boatman" in Apollo was Wm. Kirkwood who drove on the towpath for a couple of days when a mere boy. 54 THE HISTORY OF APOLLO. THE POST OFFICE. A post office was first established in the town August 15, 1827. Prior to this mail was received through Kittanning and Freeport offices. Since there was a Warren P. 0. in Pennsylvania, it was necessary to give this office a different name. It is not known who suggested the name Apollo. It is not probable that Post Master Gen- eral McLain would have named it without consulting some of the citizens. Dr. Robert McKissen being a man of classical education and of poetic aspirations is the logical source of the suggestion. Milton Dally was appointed first postmaster. The subsequent post- masters as near as can be learned were Robert McKissen, James X. Mcllwain, John T. Smith, Samuel M. Jackson, Wm. Wray, Wm. Jack, James Chambers, Charles Silverman, R. S. Cochran, Lebanah Townsend, D. D. P. Alexander, E. A. Townsend, Thos. Johnston, T. A. Cochran, Charles Hageman, J. E. Gallagher, F. M. Newingham. The office was not much sought in early days. It was usually kept where most convenient. For the most part it was in a store. J. X. Mcllwain had it in his harness shop in 1859. He was succeeded by S. M. Jackson who resigned while he was in the army, Wm. T. Jackson having had it in charge up to that time. Wm. Wray then received the appointment. John T. Smith had it in his tavern, Wm. Jack was a shoemaker and Wm. Wray a druggist. The office was burned in 1876. It was robbed under the administrations of R. S. Cochran and E. A. Townsend. BURGESSES. On account of the loss of some of the archives of Apollo, it is not possible to give a list of all the burgesses. Until 1892, the burgess served without remuneration for services. In that year his salary was placed at $50 per annum. The term of office now is four years instead of one as formerly. Following is the list: Dr. McKis- sen, 1848; Samuel Jack, 1873; Jacob Freetly; Col. S. M. Jackson; Samuel McElroy, 1883; T. A. Cochran, 1887; A. J. Wilson, 1888; J. D. Lauffer, 1889; Dr. Wm. Bryar, 1890; George W. Wilson, 1891; M. E. Uncapher, 1894; J. A. Kennedy, 1897; John Q. Cochrane, 1900; Harry Carnahan, 1903; J. D. Lauffer, 1906; J. C. Hunter, 1908; Geo. W. Steel, 1909. Dr. J. C. Hunter is the present burgess. PHYSICIANS. Until 1881 it was not necessary to register to practice medicine. It is difficult to get dates of location on that account. The following have practiced in Apollo: Robert McKissen, Wm. P. McCullough, surgeon in 78th Regiment, Thos. C. McCullough, J. S. Kuhn, Speer, Thos. H. Allison, Wm. McBryar, O. P. Bollinger, surgeon in 78th Regiment, J. S. McNutt, W. B. Ansley, J. W. Bell, R. E. McCauley, Wm. K. Young, T. A. Kimmell, W. W. Leech, J. H. THE HISTORY OF APOLLO. 55 Smith, W. L. MoBryar, 1886; T. J. Henry, 1887; M. C. Householder, 1888; F. E. Henry, 1891; J. C. Hunter, 1893; A. D. McElroy, 1894; H. W. Tittle, 1896; A. H. Townsend, 1902; J. W. Stamm, 1907; James Edgehill; Robert Finlay, J. E. Armstrong, 1915. Dr. Talmage, (hiring the salt era in this valley, did considerable practice around this neighborhood. He was interested in the salt works south of town on the Westmoreland side and also at Old Town, near Leechburg. lie was the first doctor in Indiana Co. DENTISTS. William Brown, T. A. Cochran, D. P. Trout, W. M. Cochran, Mel- ancthon Fctzcr, F. E. Smallwood, A. T. Ambrose, Dr. Drew, Dr. Black, C. E. Orndorf, J. K. Eyler, Dai\ial Giles, Warren Curry, Colin Cameron, S. E. Calhoun, Arthur L. Willard. LAWYERS. Jacob Froetly was the first lawyer in Apollo, 1855, John B. Guthrie, II. N. Mclntire, W. J. Guthrie, John Q. Cochrane, Earle Cochrane, Alex Cochrane, S. G. McNecs. IRON INDUSTRIES. The first iron industry in this neighborhood was the old "Rock Furnace." It was the first blast furnace west of the Allegheny Mountains and was built by James Biddle in 1825. It was 30 feet across the bosh. It was a cold blast and charcoal was used for fuel. It employed from fifty to seventy-five men and there was quite a little village there. The ore was taken from the hill above the furnace. It takes its name from the large rock overhanging the road by the cupola. It was not a financial success. It was last owned by Sharp, Woodard & Co. THE NAIL IMILL. The Kiskiminetas Iron Company was organized in 1855 with five hundred shares capital stock. Its object was the manufacture of nails. It was erected in 1856. The company conveyed its interest in the works to George W. Cass and Washington McClintock, in 1859, for $40,000. The mill was operated by this company for eighteen months when it was shut down. THE ROLLING MILL. In 1863, Washington McClintock, Wm. Rogers and W. E. Foale leased the nail mill and began the manufacture of sheet iron. Until the destruction of Dam No. 2, in February 1866, the mill was run by water power derived from a large basin fed by the canal. Mc- Clintock and Foale retired from the firm in August 1864 and Thos. 56 THE HISTORY OF APOLLO. Burchfield became an active partner and Thos. J. Hoskinson a silent partner. Rogers and Burchfield procured a large engine and an additional train of rolls. It soon became noted for its cold rolled iron. Mr. Rogers traveled in Russia and in his efforts to acquire a knowledge of a special Russian iron he was thought a suspicious char- acter and was arrested. It required diplomatic correspondence to have him released . After he came home he introduced a special Russian finish iron. Besides his works here he built the Siberian Iron Works at Leech- burg. At this place the works gave employment to 140 men. The works were run by coal. Part of the time this was taken out from the Truby mines under Luxemburg Heights. The coal was hauled in cars on a wooden railroad from the mines to the mill. Horses were used for this. At the time of the great epidemic of Epizootic among horses, the mill company was compelled to haul their coal with teams of oxen. Rogers and Burchfield went into bankruptcy in 1875. At that time the assets were listed at 2 sheet mills, 2 sheet furnaces, 2 annealing furnaces, 7 puddling furnaces, 1 heating furnace, steam hammer, 2 gas wells, 3 engines, 21 houses, one store, one bakery, one suspension bridge and land and mill structures. This plant was purchased by P. H. Lauffman & Co. in 1876. It was run by Lauffman and McElroy until 1893 when it became the property of The Apollo Iron and Steel Co., George G. McMurtry, President and Manager. This company enlarged and improved the works rapidly. Desiring yet more room for works in 1898 they pur- chased several hundred acres of land and began the building of Van- dergrift. Notwithstanding Mr. McMurtry said: "We are bound by an unwritten law not to remove these mills after the workmen have built up their homes at this place" the work of removal went on until in 1902 the last iron made by the company at this place was passed through the rolls June 28th by A. L. Zimmerman. NAMES OF ROLLING MILL AT DIFFERENT PERIODS. Kuntz & McClintock, March 6th, 1855 to 1859; Rogers & Burch- field, 1859 to 1875; Laufman & McElroy, 1875 to 1884; Volta Iron Company, 1884 to 1886; Apollo Iron and Steel Company, 1886 to 1900; American Sheet Steel Co., 1900 to 1903; American Sheet and Tin Plate Co., 1903. THE LAUFMAN MILL. In 1886 P. H. Laufman & Co. built a four mill plant on the site of the old brickyard in West Apollo. Andrew Gourley was manager until 1896 when A. C. Hammitt succeeded him and acted in that ca- pacity until 1900. At that time this mill became a part of the U. S. Steel Corporation and the plant was dismantled. THE HISTORY OF APOLLO. 57 ELECTRO-PLATING WORKS. This was established by P. H. Laufman in 1890. It was built at the western terminus of North Fourth Street and operated for two years. APOLLO STEEL COMPANY At the time that the Apollo Iron and Steel Co. sold their partial- ly dismantled plant at this place, the American Sheet Steel purchased only the mill and the site of eight and one-third acres. The rest of the holdings yet remained as the property of the former company. At the time the Cooperage Company was seeking a site, the Board of Trade tried to purchase a part of the ground at the foot of Fourth Street. The committee was unsuccessful in making a deal. Later when this land had been taken over by the Vandergrift Land Com- pany, that body offered it to the Apollo Board of Trade for $6,000 cash. The Board not having sufficient funds, a syndicate was formed to hold the land as a site or sites for future industries. Through the influence of Col. Jackson, the lots belonging to P. H. Laufman were purchased at the same time for $600. These lots were on the same plot next the river. The Syndicate procured the money from the Apollo Trust Co. and guaranteed the interest. The syndicate consist- ed of twelve members: E. A. Townsend, W. L. George, C. P. Wolfe, S. M. Jackson, W. F. Pauly, H. F. Jack, W. J. Guthrie, E. L. Bartley, J. C. Hunter, C. H. Truby, G. W. Steele and T. J. Henry. The holding of this site made it possible to locate the new mill promoted by Rob- ert Lock. Mr. Lock's large experience in Leechburg, Vandergrift and Brackenridge made him an acceptable man to establish a mill. A citizen's meeting was held Feb. 16, 1912. An estimated cost of the proposed mill was stated and stock was subscribed in sufficient amount to permit ground to be broken June 3rd. The first iron was rolled June 16, 1913. Power was turned on by Robert Lock. The first piece of iron was put through the soft rolls by W. E. Jones. John M. Fiscus, a sheet steel worker of many years of experience acted as catcher. The first pair was broken down by Ira Dodson and the first pack finished by W. F. Jones. The plant consists of six sheet mills, two cold mills and galvanizing department. The mill is run by electricity furnished by the West Penn Electric Co. of Connellsville, Pa. The drive for the mill is a double helical-cut tooth gear, the largest in the world. It was built by the United Engineering and Foundry Co. and the cutting done by the Wm. Todd Co. of Youngstown, Ohio. The motor is 1400 horse-power. The incoming electric current is 25,000 volts. This is reduced to 2300. The equipment excels any other now in use. The Directors of The Apollo Steel Company are Robert Lock, President; Oscar Oppenheimer, Vice President; A. M. Oppenheimer, Secretary and Treasurer; J. E. Gallagher; C. P. Wolfe; W. J. Guthrie; John H. Jackson. 58 THE HISTORY OF APOLLO. APOLLO ELECTRIC STEEL COMPANY. This company was organized February 7, 1916, to manufacture open hearth steel by electricity. On account of the inability of the West Penn Power Company, of Connellsville, Pa. to supply the proper current at present, it was decided to construct an open hearth furnace at once to be operated by gas. The site secured comprises eight and one-half acres previously occupied by the Apollo Iron and Steel Co. The construction was begun on the first furnace, Mar. 29, 1916. It is the intention of adding additional furnaces and a bar mill. The officers and directors are F. W. Jackson, President; J. E. Gallagher, Secretary; Robert Lock, Treasurer; W. J. Guthrie, Solicit- or; W. E. Troutman; John H. Jackson. TANNERIES. There was a tannery in nearly every village in early days. Then almost every person wore made to order boots and shoes and it was a case of from cattle to foot in most communities. John Wort estab- lished the first tannery here in 1823. James Guthrie built one on the rear of the lot now owned by D. H. Williams on Warren Ave. in 1839. Simon Whitlinger built a large tannery on the S. E. corner of Penn- sylvania Ave. and N. Second St. in 1850. It was acquired by J. F. Whitlinger and removed to North Tenth Street where it was still in operation until a few years ago. GRIST MILLS. John H. and Eden Townsend built a grist mill in 1849 on the corner of Mill and Water Streets. The building is yet standing. It became the property of George Brenner who carried on the business successfully for many years. It later was run by J. S. Young. This mill was finally purchased by W. H. Carnahan who had come from Cochran's Mills and had built the Superior Rolling Mills on Eleventh Street. This latter has been dismantled and the building is now owned by the Wallace Planing Mill Co. The other mill is not running at present writing. COOPERAGE AND PLANING MILLS. There were many small cooperage plants in and around the town. In 1854, Samuel Jack built a large barrel factory by the canal near the foot of South Third St. Its annual output was 10,000 barrels. From eight to twelve hands were employed. It was run until 1865 when Mr. Jack built a planing mill on the other side of the river. This was in use for many years furnishing most of the lumber for building until recently. It was managed for some time by his sons. It was finally acquired by Harry F. Jack and later he became interested in the Apollo Cooperage Plant and appropriate machinery was installed for < ■y h- 1 y^ >< . a. -^ O t-H a cq THE HISTORY OF APOLLO. 59 that work. This plant was burned, 1907. Other planing mills were the McMullen and The Cochran & McMuUen. The latter is now con- trolled by George Wallace. The Alcorn Brothers have a lumber yard on N. Seventh Street. FERRIES AND BRIDGES. The first ferry was kept by Owen Jones just above the county bridge. Mr. Jones was a Welshman and occupied the house yet standing at the edge of the bridge for many years. The Apollo approach to the bridge was his garden. The house is still in the possession of his descendants. The last deer killed here was chased down through town by a hunter. It leaped into the river at the foot of S. Fourth Street at the old elm trees and attempted to escape by swimming the stream. Mr. Jones gave pursuit and killed it with an oar. The antlers are in the possession of Casper Kettering. The Warren Bridge Co. took out a charter in 1844, later supple- mented in April 1846. At this time the bridge was built as a toll bridge at a cost of $10,000. It consisted of two abutments, three stone piers and a superstructure of wood supported by arches and roofed and weatherboarded. It was not a good financial investment. On May 1, 1852, Trustees were authorized to sell it unless all indebt- edness was paid before the end of the year. It was not sold at that time as further legislation was made prolonging the adjustment. It was carried away by an ice gorge in January 1881. Among the toll keepers of this bridge were James Barr, Mrs. Andrew and daughters, James Guthrie, R. S. Cochran, Smith Jack, George Jackson and Thom- as Jackson. Several attempts to make this a free bridge failed. It had even been made an issue in town politics. After its destruction immediate steps were taken to secure a free bridge to replace it. These efforts were successful and the present structure was erected jointly by Armstrong and Westmoreland Count- ies at a cost of $24,150 for the superstructure alone. The Morse Bridge Company, of Youngstown, Ohio, had the contract and James Hamilton & Co. did the stone work. During its building a ferry was run by Thomas Jackson. The new bridge was commenced Aug. 19, 1881 and the stone work completed Nov. 25. The complete structure was finished March 17th, 1882. After Rogers & Burchfield had attempted to carry coal across the river from Owens bank to the mill on gravity cars suspended on wire cables and found it impractical, they built in 1873, a wire sus- pension bridge of two sections each swung from shore to a pier in the middle of the river. Mules were used to haul the coal and it was found that much toll could be saved by making this a shipping point for mill products. The cables supporting this bridge parted in the middle and the whole mass of twisted wire fell into the river carrying with it a team of mules and Joseph Henderson and Samuel Younkins. This occurred February 19th, 1884. Mr. Younkins escaped but Mr. 60 THE HISTORY OF APOLLO. Henderson and the team were drowned. After the Apollo Iron and Steel Company came under the man- agement of Geo. G. McMurtry, the P. R. R. Co. built a bridge below the mill to accommodate the increased traffic. The road was extended to First Street and a freight and passenger depot built on this side. The R. R. bridge was a wooden structure and did service until after the removal of the mills. As the bridge got out of repair owing to lack of freight it was decided to abandon it. On June 10th, 1904 a Board of Trade meeting was held to protest against the abandonment of train service on the Apollo side. A committee was appointed to confer with the R. R. officials. Meeting with no encouragement in Pittsburgh the committee went to Philadelphia and secured an aud- ience with Mr. Atterbury, July 7th, 1904. After hearing the commit- tee, Mr. Atterbury assured them that the order would be rescinded. Later as the bridge became really unsafe, train service was abandon- ed for a short time. As the station across the river was now called Paulton, Apollo was practically off the R. R. map. Again the citi- zens appealed to the R. R. Co. and Paulton was changed to West Apollo. Construction of a new R. R. bridge was begun south of town and on December 31, 1906 this was opened to traffic and train service on this side resumed. The workmen who resided at Apollo and worked in Vandergrift used the old railroad bridge as a means of short route to and from labor. When this was condemned the Apollo Ferry Company was organized, March 14, 1905, and went into service north of Apollo. The sole object was to accommodate Apollo work- men. It was a stock company. E. A. Townsend, W. F. Pauly, W. B. Willard, Geo. B. Wallace and Ira Wray were elected to serve as directors. The capital stock was $500. At the end of a year counting the capital stock and receipts from the investment there was a bal- ance of $185.99 on the right side. The ferry was sold to W. W. Wal- lace and Son and is yet run by the latter member of the firm. POTTERIES. John McLaughlin had a pottery in Apollo early in its history. After Thos. Johnston sold his interest in the firebrick works in 1867, he engaged in the making of crocks, canning jars, etc. on Maple Street. Foot power was used for turning the clay while moulding. At first the clay used was obtained on the Allison farm. The vein became exhausted and it was then brought from Roaring Run on the West- moreland side. There was a good supply of this clay but it was of inferior quality. A fine grade of clay was found on Crooked Creek and Mr. Johnston attempted to run his pottery by hauling that dist- ance. After running for seven years, he found that at the prices cur- rent he was losing money and abandoned the business. James Mc Nees then leased the plant but ran it for only one year. George An- derson, present janitor of the Public School building, was the moulder for Mr .McNees and made the last crocks produced in Apollo. FIRST CATHOLIC CHURCH. (Picture by T. J. Henry.) THE HISTORY OP APOLLO. 61 BRICK WORKS. The making of red brick was begun early in Apollo. Most of the brickyards were temporary for some special contract. Firebrick was made in 1864 by Thomas Johnston. His works were on the same site as the brickyard in West Apollo . His associates were James M. Taylor and Thomas and Andrew Carnegie. The plant was a success from the start. Firebrick commanded $50 a thousand. The clay was hauled from McLaughlin's Hill south of Apollo. The Carnegies had invested $2600 and withdrew at the end of a year with $6500. Isaac Reese being a practical brick man was taken in to look after the busi- ness. He entered without any capital. Mr. Johnston withdrew after three years. McMath and Reese became the owners and at the ex- piration of six years, Mr. Reese was sole proprietor. The firm then became Reese, Maxwell & Crosby and for a short time R. S. Cochran had an interest. Experimenting on silica brick caused them to lose so much that they failed and the Apollo Bank took over the business. The bank officials got Thomas Johnston to return from Canton where he was engaged in the furniture business. He took charge of the works and ran them for some time. It is interesting to know that Isaac Reese finally succeeded in making silica brick at the Phoenix Brick Works at Manorville and became wealthy. The Apollo Firebrick Works were dismantled and P. H. Laufman & Co. built a rolling mill on the site. When the Steel Corporation was formed this mill was removed. In 1903, Mr. Johnston repurchased the site and built the present silica brickworks. He sold to the National Refractories Co. in 1910 and it was run for some time under the management of W. H. Hill. The plant has been closed down for several months. While Mr. Johnston ran the old firebrick works he employed 30 men and had a pay roll of $2,000 a month which meant much to the town at that time. With natural gas as a fuel, Mr. Johnston says that if he were ten years younger he would be in the business yet, but 86 is too old to rejuvenate and run a business. NEWSPAPERS. The first paper published in the town, as well as the first in the Kiskiminetas Valley was the Warren Lacon. The first issue was Nov. 6, 1835. It was discontinued in 1840. Dr. Robert MoKissen was editor and proprietor and Jerry Murphy was compositor. The Apollo Lacon and Kiskiminetas Review was established Sept 1875 by Miss Jennie Stentz. This was purchased by W. E. Melhorn but he soon ceased to struggle against adverse circumstances. In 1878, C. W. Bollinger who was engaged in job printing, published the Apollo Review, a small four page sheet for a few months. On April 1, 1883, the first issue of the Apollo Herald was brought out by Wm. Davis, Principal of the Apollo Public Schools. He and Beacom Brothers of Blairsville, who did the printing, issued it for one year when it was 62 THE HISTORY OF APOLLO. sold to J. C. Rairigh. Mr. Rairigh published from April 10, 1884 until Oct. 3, 1884, when it was again sold; this time to Walter J. and Laur- etta A. Guthrie. In their hands the circulation and advertisements increased encouragingly. They issued it regularly until Sept. 3, 1886, when having other interests they sold to R. S. Cochran who made his son, M. H. Cochran, editor. The latter gave his whole time to it and soon purchased it from his father and made it boom so that on May 7, 1888 it was made a semi-weekly. Mr. Cochran succeeded in build- ing up quite an extensive plant, but his untimely death, Jan. 26, 1893, ended the hope for a daily for Apollo. Mrs. Cochran continued the publication as a weekly until 1898 when she moved to Vandergrift, following the shift of industries to that place and established the Vandergrift Citizen. She continued its publication until her second marriage when she sold to E. H. Welsh. In 1894, C. W. Bollinger started the Advertiser in connection with job printing. He and his brothers continued it until 1897. In 1895, A. Lincoln Cochran pro- moted the News-Record and interested W. J. Guthrie, W. C. Guthrie, Col. S. M. Jackson, F. W. Jackson and W. W. Leech. At first it was all home print and was quite a factor in home politics. Mr. Cochran having decided to go to Atlanta, Ga., his interest became vested in Dr. T. J. Henry. The company continued the paper until June 16, 1906 when Mr. Guthrie acquired the whole stock and, with E. C. Bell as editor regularly issued it until Jan. 29, 1907, when it was again placed in control of a company. Rev. M. E. McLinn, Rev. D. W. Kerr and T. J. Baldrige placed it on a temperance basis. In 1908, T. J. Baldrige purchased the whole stock and under his management it has become one of the best equipped plants in the valley. In April, 1916 a Model B Intertype was installed which greatly facilitated the work of the office. This was the latest production of typesetting machine and the only one of its kind in the valley. With its aid the News-Record was enabled to publish a 28 page Pictorial and Historical edition in the interest of the Centennial celebration, which was favorably commented upon by many papers throughout the state. The News-Record published a daily paper during Centennial week, which was the first daily published in the town or valley. The Apollo Sentinel was established in 1907 by R. V. Bentzel and brother. It was purchased by E. W. and C. C. Hildebrand in 1913 and is an attractive, progressive and paying sheet. FOUNDRIES. The first foundry was built by Allen & Shankle on th lot now owned by Mrs. Louis Whitlinger on South Second Street. This was about 1866. It was purchased by John and Smith Jack and moved to a site now on Kiskiminetas Avenue north of Geo. Steele's residence. John Jack was in the business from 1867 to 1873. The old building is yet used as a stable. Smith Jack retired and Casper Kettering THE HISTORY OF APOLLO. 63 became a partner of John Jack. Mr. Kettering acquired the whole interest of the plant in a short time but took in R. C. Smith in 1876. This partnership lasted but a few months and Mr. Kettering again became sole owner. He continued to operate the foundry until the organization of the Apollo Foundry Co. in 1898. Prior to this the output of the plant was small and chiefly plowpoints, stove castings, etc. The new plant was equipped for mill supplies. James Kirkwood had an active part in the promotion and completion of this plant. The majority of stock in this being identical with the interests of the Apollo Iron & Steel Co., it was removed to Vandergrift shortly after the removal of the mills. It has become the United Engineering and Foundry Company. CEMETERIES. When Isaac McKisseck owned the Allison farm he had negroes working for him. Four of these, two men and two women were hurried in a little grave yard just above Marcellus Shupe's residence in Allison Lane. About eighteen or twenty whites were buried there also. Among them was a child of Alex Kerr. A Mrs. Daugherty who lived in a log house on that farm was buried there after she strange- ly foretold her death. A rooster came in one morning when she was spinning. The fowl flew up on her wheel and crew thrice. Mrs. Daugherty immediately made arrangements for her death in three days. Her death actually occurred at that time. APOLLO CEMETERY. The Apollo Cemetery was laid out in 1868, by T. A. Cochran, S. M. Jackson and John B. Chambers. It is situated south of Apollo. Hugh Owens and sons laid out a cemetery on the north and immediately joining the Apollo cemetery in 1908. It is called River View Cemetery. Prospect Cemetery was laid out in 1906 by W. F. Whitlinger on his farm on the State Road. SOLDIERS BURIED IN APOLLO CEMETERIES. A J. H. Anderson, F. M. Anderson. B Isaac Barber, Dr. O. P. Bollinger, S. T. Bovard, George Bellas, John Burkett, John Bash, Michael Bash, Johnson Brown. C Lewis Cupps, K. D. Cochran, J. H. Chambers, Samuel Carpenter. D S. D. Devilen. F Robert Fitzsimmons, J. J. Ford, Hugh Forbes. G John B. Guthrie, Robert Graham, Samuel George. H John Humphreys, Henry Hageman, Wm. H. Henry, Aaron Hill, Josiah Hilty, John Huffman. J W. T. Jackson, Thomas Jackson, J. T. Jackson, John Jones, Smith 64 THE HISTORY OF APOLLO. Jack, J. Y. Jackson, Samuel Jack, Robert Jones, Samuel M. Jack- son, S. S. Jack, J. W. Jellison. K Wm. Kirkwood, Daniel Keiflin, M. P. Kirkland, J. L. Kerr, Henry L. Kinter, S. H. Kerr, L. L. Kunkle. L Alex Long, C. W. E. Lytle. M D. C. Martin, Isaac Mason. Mc John Mcllwain, Jas. McLaughlin, Jas. X. Mcllwain, Joseph H. McKee, Daniel McLain. P Albert Painter, William V. Poole. R R. W. Rowland, J. B. Ryan. S J. A. Sell, G. W. Stivenson, E. C. Smith, Jas. Salsgiver, John W. Scott, A. H. Sheasley, Benj. F. Shearer. T Henry Turney, Adam Tomer, Patrick Turney. U Daniel Uptegraft. W A. W. Withington, Paul Wilmot, Murray Watson, George Wilson, SPANISH-AMERICAN WAR— Dr. W. L. McBryar, A. Frank Mc Cormick, Charles Fishel. WAR OF 1812— Kennedy Hunter, James M. Spahr. (Old Graveyard) — General Robert E. Stuart, Jack Brown, Kerr, G. W. Hildebrand, Samuel Henry, Jacob Ford. INDIAN WAR — James Jackson. CIVIL WAR — Wash Fryar in old graveyard, A. J. Artman in Prospect Cemetery. Total of Civil War, 75; Spanish-American, 3; Indian War, 1; War of 1812, 2. The tabled slab marking the resting place of Gen. Robt. E. Stuart was unfortunately destroyed during the building of the new Presbyterian Church. It was a place of special notice since the mem- ory of Apollo's oldest inhabitant. WATER WORKS. For many years the people of Apollo depended upon well water for domestic use. As a consequence, typhoid fever and enteric troubles were a constant menace to health. In 1888, the old Apollo Water Company, C. J. Randolph, manager, supplied the town with water pumped directly from the river above town. The pumping station was on the site now occupied by John Green's stable. Wm. Free was engineer. The storage tanks, three in number, were placed on Owen's knoll east of the borough. As there were no sewers emptying into the river nearer than Saltsburg, and they but few, a distance of ten miles, the water was comparatively pure and typhoid abated. Owing to the increased drainage of acids from manufacturing plants, the water became objectionable on account of its deleterious effects on the pipes and hot water tanks. This plant was sold in 1899 to the Pennsylvania Water Company of Wilkinsburg. The new com- pany became the Apollo Water Works Company and immediately THE HISTORY OF APOLLO. 65 took steps to improve the supply. The company con- structed an impounding dam on Beaver Run with a capacity of 60,000,000 gallons and a filtering plant below consisting of two large filtering beds. After passing through these into the "clear water well" the water is pumped to a storage reservoir on the Owens farm in Westmoreland County. This reservoir has a capacity of 10,000,000 gallons. From this the water is distributed by mains to Apollo and Leechburg. Every means are taken to prevent its con- tamination after it has been filtered. Feeling the need of a greater supply, the company constructed another impounding dam on the Gilkerson and Orr farms. It has a capacity of 10,000,000 gallons. The plant on Beaver Run is very efficient. The Alberger-Deane unit has a capacity of 1,000,000 gallons in 24 hours. The new Westing- house-Smith Vaille unit has a capacity of 1,500,000 gallons. The pres- sure is 130 pounds standard. The water is bacteriologically tested frequently and a constant supervision to prevent contamination in the streams supplying is kept up. W. C. Hawley is general superintend- ent; D. C. Shull, superintendent; W. J. Murphy, cashier. FIRE DEPARTMENT. Fire protection is only by volunteer companies of which we have three. No. 1 Hose Company and Hook and Ladder Company have their headquarters in the Municipal Building on South Second Street. Hose Company No. 2 Keeps the hose cart and other equipment in Dr. T. J, Henry's garage and hold their meetings in the hall above. The Oak Hill Company or Hose Company No. 3 has had a large building erected by the borough, at a cost of $920, for their equipment, hose cart and ladders. This is also the home of the borough horse. Fire alarms are now rung by telephone central. FIRES. The most destructive fire in the history of Apollo occurred Janu- ary 19, 1876. The fire originated in Absalom Rudolf's shoestore on North Street. Twenty-nine buildings were destroyed with a loss of $32,000 with only $1200 insurance. The only means the inhabitants had to fight fire was by bucket brigade, passing water along a line from wells to the burning buildings. The extent of this destruction would cover from two squares of First Street around Kiskiminetas Avenue and up South Second Street one square with the exception of the McMullen corner which escaped. The bank and post office were burned at this time. The Cooperage Plant across the river was burned Nov. 18, 1907; loss $35,000. The American Gas Company's barn at foot of First Street on Sept. 27, 1908. This loss was $10,000. Three horses and a cow were burned. 66 THE HISTORY OF APOLLO. The Racket Store on Warren Avenue was destroyed by fire, Oct. 21, 1911. Apollo has had many minor fires but the volunteer fire companies have been willing and efficient. North Apollo suffered a severe loss in the burning of five houses on R. R. Avenue in July 1901. Two articles written after the "Big Fire" are matters of history. Rogers & Burchfield had failed the year before and the fire added to the distress. ADDRESS OF THANKS FROM THE RELIEF COMMITTEE "The condition of our people called for immediate relief. The crackling flames had scarcely died away when the sympathy of the people poured in upon us. It is the desire of the Relief Committee and the citizens of this place to return their sincere thanks, in a special manner, to the following persons for their generous con- tributions. "To the citizens of Blairsville for their prompt and liberal con- tribution of $160 worth of provisions; to Wm. Grabenstein, Esq., of Saltsburg, for one barrel of meat and sausage; to J. McCreighton, superintendent of West P. R. R., cash $10 and free transportation for all contributions; to Major J. R. Speer, $20; to an engineer of W. P. R. R., $1; J. M. Stewart, Saltsburg, $10. Although the best part of our town is in ashes, the gratitude of the people toward their bene- factors still lives and rises above the ruins." The second article is not so pleasant but it is history. The fol- lowing was taken from our home paper, dated Feb. 11, 1876. "We have ten able bodied men on the poor rates of Apollo. Any person wanting laborers please call with the Overseers of the Poor of Apollo. These men need work and will be hired out at 75 cents per day and board. We have 17 children from 2 to 12 years old to be bound out, otherwise they will be sent to the poor house." TELEPHONES. When Harry C. Wray read in a boys' paper that he could make a "lovers' telegraph" by taking two "extract" boxes and substituting parchment for their bottoms and connecting them together by a cord passing through the centre of each membrane and kept from slipping out by a knot on the end, that when these were whispered in at a distance when the cord was taut, that a secret conversation could be held, he made one and brot it to school. It was a success. Little he thought that this simple contrivance was the beginning of a tele- phone system which revolutionized the communication of the whole world. In August and September of 1894, C. W. Bolinger experiment- ed with real telephones which had now been developed. He ran wires b o D O ^ THE HISTORY OF APOLLO. 67 to six or seven business houses, connecting the phones on one line. This method worked but was unsatisfactory. He, however, looked up some more subscribers and with T. J. Baldrige formed a company call- ed the B. & B. Telephone Company. They purchased a switchboard from Viaduct Telephone Company, of Baltimore. By Oct. 30, 1894, they had erected poles, connected up the phones and established an ex- change in C. W. Bollinger's building, on North Fourth Street. Miss Anna Cochran was the first operator. In Jan. 1895, Mr. Baldrige re- tired from the company and Mr. Bollinger continued the business alone, still gradually adding to his subscribers. In 1901, F. W. Jack- son bought an interest but sold it the same year to H. W. Walker. They continued in partnership until Oct. 1902 when a stock company of Apollo citizens was formed. It was called the Apollo Telephone Company. The capital stock was $10,000. In 1908 it was consolidat- ed with the Kittanning Telephone Company. ELECTRIC RAILWAY. The Leechburg and Apollo Electric Railway Company was or- ganized in 1902. Officers: John Q. Cochrane, president; S. M. Jack- son, treasurer; S. M. Nelson, J. P. Klingensmith, J. D. Orr, Edward Hill, J. W. Crosby and Jas. B. Kifer, directors. Right of way was granted by the Council of Apollo in 1904. As the road was not completed in the specified time, at the request of the company an extension of franchise was granted until 1906. The name of the company was changed to Pittsburgh and Allegheny Val- ley Railway. It became the property of the West Penn Traction Company in 1911. The line is eight miles long, running along the river route, from Apollo to Leechburg. The first car traversed the road from Leech- burg March 13th, 1906. The following week full traffic was establish- ed. APOLLO WOOLEN MILL. This mill was built in 1908. The Board of Trade assisting and controlling the site until it was on a good financial footing when the full title was given to the company. It employs about thirty hands. Besides making blankets they make cloth for use in the U. S. Army. T. E. Cunningham is president and J. M. Hankey, secretary and treasurer. LIME AND BALLAST COMPANY. This plant has an excellent quarry, fine crushing machinery and kilns. W. L. George is president and C. P. Wolfe, secretary. It is located near the West Penn Mines. 68 THE HISTORY OF APOLLO. COAL MINES. The West Penn Mines are south of Apollo about one and a half miles. The opening of these mines was promoted by Walter L. George C. P. Wolfe, F. W. Jackson and Robert McLaughlin. The company employs 150 men and the pay roll is over $4,000 every two weeks. The Hicks Mine on the West Apollo side employs about 120 men. The tipple at this mine has had to be replaced twice on account of fire. GAS AND GAS COMPANIES. Natural gas has been known for more than a thousand years. The so-called "Eternal Fires" of Asia are of this origin. Notwith- standing illuminating gas was introduced into general use in 1805 in England, no one seems to have thought of utilizing the gas found in drilling for salt or oil for domestic purposes for many years. In fact the substance was regarded as a nuisance. It was usually conducted to a safe distance from the well and burned at the end of a pipe. In Fredonia, N. Y., it was used as a fuel in 1821. In Fairview, Butler County, Pa., it was used in 1872. In 1869, a number of Leechburg, Pa., people drilled a well for oil near the present site of the Leech- burg R. R, depot. A huge gusher of gas was struck and for several years the community was lighted up by the burning of this above the derrick. In 1874, Wm. Rogers had it piped across the river to the rolling mill where it was first tested as a fuel under the boilers. This was successful and it was tried in a puddling furnace. Thus was the first use of natural gas in the iron industry introduced in our neigh- boring town. The first well drilled in the vicinity of Apollo was on the Thomas Martin farm on Pine Run and the Pine Run Gas Com- pany came into existence. Apollo is now supplied with gas by the American Natural Gas Company, of Pittsburgh, of which Xavier Wittmer is president and Henry Wittmer is secretary and treasurer. The Pine Run Gas Company was the first to supply Apollo with gas . It was sold to Undercliff Natural Gas Company which was re- organized under the name Kiskiminetas Natural Gas Company and finally taken over by the American Natural Gas Company. The Apollo Gas Company was a subsidiary of the Apollo Iron & Steel Company. It is yet furnishing gas to the American Sheet & Tinplate Company at Vandergrift, but had sold its town plant to the Conemaugh Gas Company. Later this also was taken over by the American Natural Gas Company. The Jackson Farm Gas Company had supplied the P. H. Laufman Mills but this interest was also em- bodied in the American Natural Gas Company. Apollo has never experienced a gas shortage since the first com- pany laid its mains. The constancy of a well is uncertain. Some flow for but a few months; some of the wells drilled here at the beginning THE HISTORY OF APOLLO. 69 of the gas industry are yet in use. Illustrating the fickleness of the substance, a company formed in Apollo struck a "roarer" up Beaver Run. A charter was applied for, an office opened and steps taken to put the product on the market. In a few weeks the well had exhaust- ed its supply. It was but a "pocket." APOLLO TRUST COMPANY. A meeting of the citizens of Apollo Borough and vicinity was held in Whitlinger's Hall on May 16, 1871, for the purpose of taking preparatory steps toward organizing a banking association to oper- ate in Apollo. J. B. Chambers was elected president; S. M. Jackson, secretary of the meeting; and Dr. Wm. McBryar, S. M. Jackson and S. P. Townsend were appointed a committee to draft a constitution and by-laws. Another meeting was held May 27, 1871, at which a constitution and by-laws were adopted and the name "Apollo Savings Bank" de- cided on and the following persons were elected directors of the bank: J. B. Chambers, Samuel Jack, Wm. McBryar, John Morrow, S. P. Townsend, James M. Kennedy, David Kepple, W. C. Bovard and Adam Maxwell. J. B. Chambers was elected president and S. M. Jackson, cashier. Bids were received for the erection of a one-story frame bank building on lot purchased from Mrs. Withington, adjoining Whitling- er's shoe store, as follows: D. J. Hilty $700, James Leech $515, and Moses Home $500. Mr. Home being the lowest bidder the contract was awarded to him. It was decided to open the bank for business on Monday, Aug- ust 7, 1871, at 2 o'clock p. m. and the rate of interest fixed at from 4 per cent, to 6 per cent. The cashier was required to furnish a bond of $10,000 and his salary was fixed at $800 per annum. The original building was destroyed by fire in 1876, and pending the erection of a new building, a room was rented from W. C. Bovard in what is now the "McBryar" residence. The new building which is that now occupied by the Trust Company was completed and ready for occupancy November 1, 1876, its total cost including fixtures be- ing $7334.17. J. B. Chambers held the office of president from its organization until his death which occurred October 21, 1886. S. M. Jackson was its cashier until 1882 when he resigned to accept an appointment as Collector of Internal Revenue in Pittsburgh, and after the death of Mr. Chambers he was elected president which office he held until his death on May 8, 1907. S. M. Nelson was elected a director in 1876, and after the resig- nation of S. M. Jackson in 1882, he was elected its cashier which office he held until its conversion into a trust company in 1901, when 70 THE HISTORY OF APOLLO. he was elected treasurer and at his death on September 12, 1908, he held the office of president. The bank was conducted as a private bank until 1895 when a state charter was taken out with a paid up capital of $60,000, with the following persons as directors: S. M. Jackson, W. McBryar, Robert Parks, T. A. Cochran, A. B. Cochran, W. G. Chambers and F. W. Jackson. In 1901 a charter was taken out in the name of the Apollo Trust Company with a paid up capital of $125,000 which took over the business of the savings bank whose stockholders became the stock- holders of the Trust Company, with the following board of directors: S. M. Jackson, S. M. Nelson, W. McBryar, W. J. Guthrie, T. A. Coch- ran, J. N. Nelson, F. W. Jackson, W. C. Guthrie and Robert Parks. The Apollo Trust Company is one of the strongest financial insti- tutions of the state; its capital, surplus and profits now exceeding $275,000 and its total resources over $900,000. Its officers and direct- ors are: president, J. N. Nelson; vice president, E. A. Townsend; secretary and treasurer, John H. Jackson; solicitor, Walter J. Guthrie; directors, T. A. Cochran, W. J. Guthrie, A. C. Hammitt, J. H. Jackson, J. S. McAwley, J. H. McLaughlin, J. N. Nelson, W. N. Nelson and E. A. Townsend. THE FIRST NATIONAL BANK. During the latter part of 1900 a number of business men of Apollo conceived the idea of organizing a National Bank in Apollo and on December 15, application was made by W. L. George, W. S. Beamer, George J. Bortz, H. G. Kennedy and Andrew Gallagher for a charter for The First National Bank of Apollo, Pa., with capital of $50,000. The Comptroller of Currency approved the application on December 17, 1900. Subscriptions were opened for stock and greatly to the surprise of those interested the authorized capital was over subscribed about three times so that it was necessary to reduce the allotment and limit the number of shares to be issued to any one person. The building opened for business on March 1, 1901 in the McBryar Building on Warren Avenue, with the following directors: W. L. George, George J. Bortz, W. S. Beamer, H. G. Kennedy and Andrew Gallagher. W. L. George was president; Andrew Gallagher, vice president; and Chas. P. Wolfe, cashier. These officers still hold their respective positions, there never having been any change in the ex- ecutive officers of the bank. Dr. T. J. Henry was elected as director in January 1904. H. G. Kennedy died in March 1905 and Geo. W. Hilborn was elected director in his place. On January 9, 1906 the number of directors was increased to seven and Wm. M. Biehl and Chas. P. Wolfe elected to the Board. In 1906 the bank having outgrown its quarters the directors O O a > o H W ^ a> THE HISTORY OF APOLLO. 71 purchased the old Elwood property on the comer of Warren Avenue and North Second Street and erected thereon a modern banking and office building costing approximately $35,000. This building is a credit to the bank and to the town and the management have received very complimentary opinions from visit- ing bankers on account of the beauty and convenience of the banking rooms. Plans for this building were drawn by E. E. Clepper, an old Apollo boy, and the contract was let on July 9, 1906 to Taylor Broth- ers of Sharon, Pa., and on July 1, 1907 possession was taken of the new building. On January 16, 1907, Chas. F. Hageman, who had for several years been employed as teller was elected assistant cashier. A few years later Mr. Hageman resigned and on July 7, 1912, S. Martin Jamison was elected to the vacancy. After the death of Geo. W. Hilborn in 1913, D. B. Townsend of South Bend was elected to the board. The bank has prospered from the beginning and has shown con- stant and regular growth both in deposits and resources. The first day's deposits amounted to $4,022.41; in one year thereafter they amounted to $131, 997.85 and have shown constant increases to date, the deposits at present amounting to approximately $460,000. The bank now has 2150 depositors, has paid to its depositors $90,316,29 in interest on accounts, paid $45,000 in dividends to the stockholders and accumulated a surplus and undivided profit account of $48,000. In the fifteen years business the bank has paid to de- positors and stockholders $135,816.29 and has accumulated surplus and profits of $48,000, a total of $182,905.26. The officers and directors of the bank are leading business men of the community and the bank has always co-operated in every way possible in the upbuilding of the town. THE SCHOOLS. The first schoolhouse for this community was bailt at the south- em end of the old graveyard. It was of hewn logs and one story high. The fire place was in the side and large enough to accomodate backlogs 5 or 6 feet long. The windows slid sideways. The seats were of slabs and had no backs. For writing desks slabs were arrang- ed along three sides of the room in such a manner that the pupils stood between them and the wall and faced the teacher. Each pupil after working a question copied it into a blank book so that when through he had a key to the old Western Calculator. Wm. McKinstry, who furnished the information to the writer a number of years ago, attended this school in 1825. Mr. Beacom was master then but it is said that Samuel Owens was the first. Alex McKinstry taught here. To him went John Brodhead, a terror to the community, mischievous 72 THE HISTORY OF APOLLO. and lazy. One day when the school was called to order the children wondered at the long strip of hickory bark hanging from a rafter. During the day when John got into mischief the master called him up and said: "John, I have watched you for many a day. I have made up my mind that you will never amount to anything and will be a disgrace to your parents. I have therefore decided to hang you." John pleaded for mercy and was glad to promise to reform. He kept his promise as far as study and behavior, but evidently not as to lying as he became a prominent lawyer. Wm. McKinstry helped to hew the logs for the second school building which stood at the forks of the little run back of the Presbyterian Church some distance up on the Owens farm, then owned by John Andree. This school was taught for some time by Jack Brown, grandfather of Mrs. Henry Bowers of North Second Street. The third schoolhouse and the first one to be erected in the Borough of Apollo, was built in 1850 on the corner of Church and Thirtyfoot Streets, now Pennsylvania Avenue and South Third Street. It was a one story frame building. It had pine desks and seats, was furnished with a cupola and bell. The latter swings in the tower of the present school building. This schoolhouse was pur- chased for one hundred dollars by Alex Henry and converted into a dwelling. Later he added a story to it and it yet stands as the prop- erty of John A. Long. The next schoolhouse was built in 1863 on the present school lot. It had two stories and two rooms. The first teachers in this building were Wm. Davis and Mary Llewellyn. As the population increased this building was moved back and a four roomed frame building was added, making six rooms for the accomodation of the pupils. This building had patent desks. In 1876 there were five rooms. The pupils still increasing in number, it became necessary to rent outside rooms. One was in the second story of the old Simon Whitlinger Building, the other was above T. A. Cochran's drug store. After the town was divided into wards the directors bought lots on Terrace Avenue with a view to erect a Second Ward Schoolhouse. This idea not meeting the desires of the succeeding board, they decided to build a brick build- ing at the rear of the frame, looking forward to the period when the old structure could be razed and a creditable building erected. Those opposing this procured an injunction. In June 1900 the injunction against the building of the new schoolhouse was dissolved by the court and a new eight room brick building was started in 1900 and completed in the Spring of 1901. This cost $9559. During this latter period of scarcity of room, rooms in various parts of the town were rented. Rooms thus rented and used for school purposes were above the store-rooms in the Bellas building, in the Diamond brick and un- der the U. P. Church. In 1913 the frame building was torn down and a fine fireproof building erected at a cost of $30,000. This building contains nine rooms, a directors' room, principal's room, gymnasium and auditorium. THE HISTORY OF APOLLO. 73 PARTIAL ROSTER OF TEACHERS. A T. B. Allison, Mary Allshouse, Belle Alcorn, Mabel Ansley, Carrie Anderson, Bertha Anderson, Virginia Allison, B Mr. Beacom, Cyrus Boggs, Sarah Boyd, Ethel Bortz, Clara Burk- ett, Blanche Bonnie, Mrs. John Baker, Ethel Bash, Fannie Bent- zel, Albert Bowser, Joseph Beyers, Joseph L. Black. C Silas Cochran, James Chambers, John Q. Cochrane, William Coult- er, Cora C. Cochran, M. Hermond Cochran, Chas. T. Culp, Anna- bel Cowan, Mary Caldwell, H. G. Carmalt, J. Ross Clark, Jennie Chambers, Anna M. Cooper, Frances Caldwell, Mayme B. Cramer, Olive Caldwell, Lavinia Chew, Mary Carruthers. D Samuel Davis, Wm. Davis, Nettie Dyess. E Margaret J. Elder, Minerva Elwood, Roberta Ewing, Margaret Eckman, May Elder. F Jacob Freetly, Jean Fitzgerald, Janet Fulton, Myrtle Foale. G Lauretta A. Guthrie, Etta Grimm, Eva Gartley. H Joseph Harper, Tillie M. Hunter, T. J. Henry, Mary S. Hawk, Zoe S. Howe, J. T. Henry, Bertha Henry, Verna B. Hill, Luella Hesse, Elizabeth Hankey. I Geo. W. Innes. J Murray Jackson, Tabitha Jellison, Anna Bird Johnston, Myra E. Jackson, Ida E. Johnston,Ralph C. Jack, Annie E. H. Jones, Mrs. A. H. Jamison, Margaret Jackson, Pearl Jack, Maggie Johnston, Wm. M. Johnston, Wm. Jamison. K Wm. Klrkwood, Myrtle Kettering, Zilla Kerr, Grace Kelley, Nell G. Kennedy, Mary Kirkwood, Anna G. Kerr, Lenora Klingensmith. L Mary Llewellyn, J. Wilse Leech, Nan Larimer, Mary Lintner, Edna Leydic. M Alex McKinstry, Wm. McQuilken, John Mclntire, James Marshall, Anna Means, Nannie W. Matthews, Eliza McMullen, Jennie Mc- Kenzie, Alice Marsh, Grace McLaughlin, Ruth McLinn, Hattie McAninch, A. T. Morgan, Susie McCandless, Maude McCullough, Eunice Miller, Dora McCullough, Mabel McFarland, R. R. Max- well, Maude McCurdy, Alfreta Musser, Helen McNees, Lois Miller. N Anna Neemes. O Samuel Owens, Nellie Orr, Madge Owens, Ethel Owens. P Lucy Paul, George M. Peeler. R Gertrude Rudolf, Ethel Randolph, Prof. Roup, A. W. Rodgers, W. A. Rodgers. S Hugh Skiles, Stewart Shaw, John G. Stewart, R. D. Sumstine, Pearl St. Clair, Floi-a Stewart, N. S. Steele, Agnes Stewart, Susanna Schulte, Sarah Sloan, W. M. Stewart, Myrtle Stewart, W. R. Steele, Melva Snyder, Irene Smith, Amy Shockey, Ethel Stuchell, Helen Strouse, I. L. Smith, Mary Spaulding. T Martha Trimble, Millie Turney, Margaret Teeters, Bertha Truby. 74 THE HISTORY OF APOLLO. W Jennie Warren, Miss Walkinshaw, Miss Shields, Sadie Dumm, Jas. S. Whitworth, Mattie Weaver, Mary Watson, Elsie Wray, Mabel Wallace, W. S. A. Wilson, Eva Wylie, Anna Wylie, Or- ville Walker. PRESBYTERIAN CHURCH. Prior to the erection of a meeting house or even to the settlement of Warren, a small congregation held services in the open in the grove south of to\vn, the hearers sitting upon logs or rude slab seats, while the minister stood on a small raised platform which was roofed to protect him from the rays of the sun. As early as 1814, this little band was regarded as a part of Poke Run Church. James Jackson and James Guthrie were elders for this district. In 1816 when the lots for the new town of Warren were sold it was a condition that two acres should be given for church, school and burying grounds. This plot was surveyed and accepted but no deed was made. Some years after the stone church was built on this ground, the adjoining land was sold to John Andree. This is now the Owens farm. No deed having been made and recorded, John Andree's survey included these two acres in his farm. A protest was made by members of this church and Andree agreed for a consideration of $25 to deed the land to the church. There being nothing to show that the land had ever been donated, this offer was accepted, the money paid and deed executed in favor of David Watson, Samuel Gordon and George Craw- ford, trustees of the Warren Presbyterian Church. Elder Jacob Mc- Cartney mounted his horse the next day and rode to Kittanning and had the deed recorded. A part of this plot which had been open as a "village green" south of the present inclosure was sold to Owens by the church. On this green had been the first schoolhouse in the im- mediate vicinity. The first communion services held by the Presby- terians was in the bam of Samuel McKee who then owned what is known as the Hilty farm, south of town. Samuel McKee had come from Crawford's Mill and was one of the contractors to build the stone church. He was drowned below Cow Bell Riffle while bringing a boat load of salt down the river. He was buried in the old grave- yard. Rev. Laird supplied a Sabbath at Warren, April 16, 1817. Rev. Robert Lee was a supply for six months and two additional elders, James Watson and James Miller were chosen. In 1824, Rev. Joseph Harper accepted the pastorate of Warren and Saltsburg churches. He was the first pastor installed at this place. Mrs. Wm. E. Jones, of North Second Street has the Bible in use at that time. During his ministration the stone church was built. It was rough on the ex- terior as the stones were not dressed. Later it was plastered on the outside. It stood for 40 years almost on the site of the present edi- fice. Rev. Dunlap succeeded Rev. Harper for six months. Rev. Wat- son Hughs was pastor at Warren and Saltsburg from 1830 to 1837. 'SQUIRE WM. HENRY ENTERING HIS OFFICE AT THE AGE OF NINETY. THE HISTORY OF APOLLO. 75 He resigned at this time and preaching was by supplies for one year. In 1838, Rev. Alexander Donaldson was supply for six months. He accepted a call to Eldersridge where his work as a minister and as in- structor in the academy which he founded is well known. Rev. Levi Graves was called to Warren in 1840; Rev. Cyrus Bristol in 1848. Robert McMillan, a theological student was called in 1857. He was the first pastor to make his home in Apollo. Rev. John Orr was called in 1865. The second church building was erected under his charge. The old stone building was torn down and the stones used as a foundation for the new brick building of two stories which was erected in 1866. The upper room was not finished until the service of Rev. Hezekiah Magill who was called in 1872. At that time an organ was introduced and Alice Bovard was organist. Rev. Samuel Elliot was installed in 1880 and Rev. J. Q. A. Fullerton in 1885. Rev. R. P. Daubenspeck was installed May 18, 1899. During the period of his services the present fine stone structure was built. It was begun in 1906 and dedicated June 1907. It was built of stone from local quar- ries and by a local contractor, T. M. Willard. It is equipped with a fine pipe organ and has a seating capacity of eight hundred. Rev. Leon Stewart was called May 2, 1908; the present pastor. Rev. Julius W. Brockway, October 9, 1911. THE METHODIST EPISCOPAL CHURCH. About 1838, it is said that the Rev. Haynes began to raise funds to build a church. He succeeded in collecting enough to buy lot No. 15 in the new addition of Warren and to start building. He died be- fore the building was completed. The church was supplied by min- isters on circuit so that no record of their names is obtainable. In April 1844, an act was passed granting the trustees of the church the privilege of selling this property provided the debts of the same were paid and the balance subject to the quarterly conference. D. G. Kinnard was presiding elder; Samuel Jones, the minister in charge. The trustees were Jacob Freetly, Daniel Risher, D. L. Byrer, Samuel Jack, and Hugh Jones. This church was one story and of frame construction. It stands at the rear of the present structure. It has had other stories added and is now occupied by Sue Rudolf. In 1851 a 40x60 brick building was erected. The church was incorporated in 1856. This brick church was razed in 1899 and another brick building of larger proportions built. This was dedicated February 11, 1900. It has a capacity of 700. Since this time excavations have been made and a commodious basement made for class purposes. The Rev. H. J. Giles was pastor at this time and through his efforts, Andrew Carnegie furnished a pipe organ. MINISTERS: 1860, J. S. Wakefield; 1861, W. A. Stewart, R. G. Heaton; 1862, W. A. Stewart, I. A. Pierce; 1863-4, J. Shane; 1865, J. 76 THE HISTORY OF APOLLO. Shane, A, P. Leonard; 1866, J. S, Lemon, H. Long; 1867, J. S. Lemon; 1868-9, M. W. Dallas; 1870-2, C. W. Miller; 1873-5, E, D. Holtz; 1876, J. W. Miles, W. C. Weaver; 1877, E. B. Griffin, W. C. Weaver; 1878, Alex Scott, W. C. Weaver; 1878, Alex Scott, W. C. Weaver; 1879-81, C. W. Miller; 1882-4, J. F. Murray; 1884-7, Robert Hamilton; 1887-91, D. J. Davis; 1891-3, J. E. Wright; 1893-8 N, G. Miller; 1898-04, H. J. Giles; 1904-07, J. W. Gary; 1907-9, P. C. Brooks; 1909-11, M. Floyd; 1911-15, H. G.Gregg, H. J. Giles; 1915, W. S. Trosh. Rev. Shane and Rev. Gregg, died in Apollo. Samuel Jack was one of the early suporters of the M. E. Church. The writer remembers of having attended Sunday school when Mr. Jack taught a class of small boys. It was the custom to teach the children their letters and to read in those days. Mr. Jack told of one of the ministers, an Irishman who objected to some of the young men's dancing and other enjoyments. He said at the close of a very strong sermon, "and so my young men, you may play cards, drink, and sing and dance all the way to hell, but when you do get there, you will not have even a cock fight to divert your attention." Rev. Isaac A. Pearce, after two companies had been raised in Apollo, in the summer of 1862 raised fifty men and with a like number in Allegheny City formed a company for the 139th regiment and was made a first lieutenant. He was wounded at Salem Churh. At Get- tysburg he was seen in the front ranks emptying his revolver at the charging enemy. Capt. Sample was killed in that battle and Pearce became captain. He was shortly after made chaplain of the regiment and as such served through his term. He died in Baltimore in 1912. ZION, A. M. E. CHURCH. This church was organized March 1895; Rev. L. N. Guinn, pastor. Meetings held in a little church on Apollo Steel Company's ground. Ministers: L. N. Guinn, John Mitchell, Rev. Dorsey, Rev. Saunders, Rev. Mills, J. D. Meade, Rev. Sloan and Rev. R. J. Cobb. UNITED PRESBYTERIAN CHURCH. This church was organized by the Associate Church about 1830. The first pastor was the Rev. William Galbraith. He was installed Nov. 23, 1836. He gave one-sixth of his time to this church. He con- tinued serving here for seven years. He died at Cannonsburg, Pa., September 20, 1893, in his 85th year. The second pastor was the Rev. Thos. Gilkerson. He gave one-fourth of his time to this place and served from October 10, 1840 to February 10, 1859. He died Febru- ary 10, 1859. The third pastor was Rev. Oliver Katz from 1865 to 1873, giving one-third of his time to this charge. The fourth and present pastor, the Rev. R. A. Jamison, then a seminary student, was called in 1878. He preached here one-half his time, giving the other half to Union. Full time has been given Apollo since December 31, 1888. J. p. WOOD WITH A GERMAN CARP AND A SPOONFISH CAUGHT NEAR THE BRIDGE. THE HISTORY OF APOLLO. 77 For the first 58 years of its existence the congregation had no pastor living within its bounds. Probably the first members of the session were Messrs. Jackson, Barr and Jamison. Jesse Clements and Gilbert Young were elected between the years 1835 and 1842. John Stewart was elected in 1851, John Shirley in 1864, John Black and John Barr in 1873, John Young and E. K. Dentzell in 1881, M. M. Martin, Samuel Martin, T. J. Sarver and W. T. Gilkerson in 1886, A. J. Martin and A. H. Jamison in 1896. The present session consists of John Black, Samuel Martin, T. J. Sarver, M. M. Martin, A. J. Martin, Charles G. Jackson and J. B. Miller. The congregation has produced two useful ministers for our church, Joseph Buffington Jackson, D. D. and Samuel Briggs Stewart. The latter died March 6, 1893. Miss Fannie Martin has been a missionary in India for about twenty years. In the records of the Presbyterian Church of Kittanning, it is stated that the Seceders having assisted in the erection of the old "Stone Church" were granted regular occupancy and they contributed their quota toward keeping the church in order. The U. P. congregation built its first house of worship in 1868. It was 32x45 feet. Another building took its place in 1885. The parsonage was built in 1891. The church was remodeled about four years ago at an approximate cost of $7,000. The estimated value of their possessions is $20,000. It has no debt. FIRST EVANGELICAL LUTHERAN CHURCH. Martin Luther's influence naturally followed the German settlers in America so that more than a century ago we find Lutherans in this locality. Rev. John M. Steck, of Greensburg, as early as 1796 traveled throughout Armstrong and Westmoreland Counties, preach- ing, baptizing and confirming the scattered followers of Luther. Among the early churches organized by this zealous worker was the St. James Church, five miles from Apollo, in 1800. Other churches of this denomination were established at Crooked Creek, Leechburg, Maysville and Spring Church before the little handful of members in this place brought their claims before the Middle Conference held in Butler in 1858. This body appointed Rev. A. C. Ehrenfeld to visit Apollo and minister unto the congregation until it was thought advis- able to organize at this point. In March 1859, a meeting for organ- ization was called by the members of the church in this vicinity. Twenty-four names were enrolled. Isaac Townsend and Philip Long were the first elders and James Fair and Christian Kepple, deacons. Soon after this Rev. Ehrenfeld received a call to another church. Rev. Lewis Kuhns was called to Apollo and presided from April 1859 until 1860. About this time Apollo and Spring Church were united under one charge and a call extended to the Rev. J. A. Delo. He began his pastorate in April 1860. The Lutherans had no building but held services in the M. E. or Presbyterian Church or at times in the 78 THE HISTORY OF APOLLO. schoolhouse. In 1860 the congregation decided to erect a building to cost $1500. Jas. Fair and Christian Kepple were appointed as build- ing committee. In the spring of 1861 ground was broken for the building but through lack of funds it was not completed during that year. It was dedicated April 30, 1863. The board of Church Ex- tension had granted them a loan of $500. The congregation was small and was not incorporated until 1862, when it received its present name, The Union Evangelical Lutheran Church of Apollo. In Jan. 1864, the Rev. Delo enlisted as chaplain in the Eleventh Pennsylvania Reserves. Rev. John Welfley took over the three churches in this charge in July 1864. The average salary for a Lutheran minister was $300 with fees for baptism, confirmation or marriage. During Mr. Welfley's pastorate in 1867, a division of the General Synod was made and the General Council formed. The members of the Apollo church voted to remain with the General Synod and Rev. Welfley resigned. Rev. M. Colver was called and accepted the charge April 1868. In 1870, the Rev. Colver still presiding, there were but thirty-nine members com- muning. Previous to this year, he had officiated in three churches, but from 1870 to 1872 Maysville was disconnected. From 1872 to 1876, he preached in Apollo alone. From 1876 to 1882 the three churches again came under one charge and the Rev. C. F. Schaffer officiated. Rev. C. B. King was pastor from 1882 to 1890. Spring Church from 1890 to the present time has been served by Rev. T. J. Frederick. Maysville built a church in 1886. The parsonage at Apollo was built in 1873. In 1875 the church was repaired. New windows with ornamental glass were put in and a recessed pulpit made. On June 19, 1882, the church was struck by lightning but slightly dam- aged. The Rev. C. B. King was installed Feb. 5, 1883. The church was again repaired in 1884. In 1887, the church being too small, an addition to the front was made. A tower was added to the building. This with a side entrance, a vestibule and folding partitions completed the improvements for that year. The church was rededicated Sept. 25, 1887. In February 1890, a new Loring & Blake organ was in- stalled. The Rev. M. L. Culler came in 1890. The parsonage was enlarged in 1892. In 1896, the church was once more improved. The floors were elevated, the folding partitions removed and the audience room made 70 feet long. Seven new windows with leaded glass were placed, new pews were bought and the church repainted. More than one hundred and fifty members left in 1896 on ac- count of the removal of the mills to Vandergrift. Rev. Culler preached his farewell sermon, August 15, 1896. Rev. Nicholas came November 2, 1897 and remained until December 1, 1902. Rev. M. E. McLinn was pastor from April 1, 1903 until January 3, 1910. Rev. H. E. Berkey from March 1, 1910 to January 5, 1914. On June 2, 1914, the Rev. M. L. Clare assumed charge and is the present pastor. THE HISTORY OF APOLLO. 79 Foreseeing the time when it will again be necessary to build, the congregation has purchased the Jones property on the corner of Pennsylvania Avenue and North Third Street. FIRST BAPTIST CHURCH. Wm. Rogers was a zealous Baptist and through his influence the Rev. A, B. Runyan organized a Baptist Church in 1868. The meetings were held in the schoolhouse. The organizers were Wm. Rogers, Sr. and wife, Hugh Evans, Wm. Foale and wife, George Kerr, Martin Kirkland, Mrs. Lucinda Garvin, Mrs. Wm. Henry, and John Morgan. Preaching and Bible school were held in the schoolhouse until 1873. Until this year Rev. John Winters was pastor assisted by A. J. Bonsall. In 1873 the firm of Rogers & Burchfield donated a plot of ground to the congregation. This is the site of the present building. A church 30x40 feet was built in the same year. It was of brick and but one story. It was dedicated free of debt. The trustees were Wm. Reese, Thom- as Reese, Hugh Evans, A. M. Hill, Dr. W. B. Ansley and John Morgan. In the following year Lloyd Morgan became pastor. In 1875 a baptistry and two dressing rooms were added to the building. It was at this time that a panic came to the community through the failure of the firm of Rogers & Burchfield and the church was weakened by the loss of many of its members. In 1878 F. T. Jones was called to the pastorate and succeeded in gathering the flock together. In 1884 F. H. Chapman supplied the church as pastor. From 1885 to 1888 J. J. Parsons served as minister of the struggling congregation and under his efforts much benefit was received to the church life. W. B. Skinner supplied alternate Sabbaths until his resignation in March 1890. J. S. Young served the following three years. Alfred Cauld- well served during the next year. In the month of May 1895, Rev. G. Tabor Thompson was called to the pastorate. During his ministry the congregation increased until the building was too small to accom- modate it. In attempting to enlarge the building one of the walls gave away and a new structure was planned. The plans developed in- to action and the following year, 1896, the present edifice built of brick and with tower and town clock was completed and dedicated. After the failure of Rogers & Burchfield, the title to the church lot was disputed by the purchasers of the mill. On tearing down the old building the deed for the ground was found in the cornerstone. It had been placed there along with some current newspapers and a stone which had been brought from Russia by Wm. Rogers. In 1901, R. Rock became pastor. W. Conner followed in 1902, W. P. Pearce in 1903, H. R. Baker in 1904 and W. E. Rush in 1905. The membership at this time was 157. G. W. Tupper served in 1907, W. A. Rupert from 1908 to 1910. W. S. Carson was called in 1911 and served two years. In November 1904 and Rev. Lawrence Ford was called and is now serving. Under his ministry the church life has been quickened and the outlook is hopeful. 80 THE HISTORY OR APOLLO. FREE METHODIST CHURCH. The Apollo Free Methodist Church was organized November 5, 1895 by Rev. L. C. Andre, who at that time was pastor of the Leech- burg Free Methodist Church, with the following charter members: Mrs. Harriet Baxter, deceased; Mrs. Delilah Erb, who is still an active member; Mrs. Amanda Scott, deceased and Harry Miller, deceased. Rev. W. G. Long was appointed the first pastor and under his ministry the membership soon grew to a degree where it was deemed advisable to erect a church building and accordingly a lot was se- cured on North Sixth Street and the present structure erected in 1896. In 1910 a commodious parsonage was built on the adjoining lot on the corner of North Sixth Street and Pennsylvania Avenue. In 1915 ex- tensive improvements were made on the church which included a large addition to be used for Sunday school and mid-week meeting purposes. The present property is valued at approximately $6500. The membership has continued to have a slow but healthy growth and at the present numbers eighty, including probationers and a Sun- day school with an enrollment of over two hundred. The ministers who have served the church are: W. G. Long, O. Gornall, A. Wilson, E. S. Zahniser, T. R. Wayne, L. A. Southworth, J. H. Whiteman, C. H. Miller, L. C. Andre, B. Hosbach, N. L. Smith and R. B. Campbell. SHILOH BAPTIST CHURCH. Rev. J. Franklin Walker in the fall of 1900, with the assistance of the First Baptist Church, organized in the Diamond Hall a mission. Members: Alfred Mason, Martha Mason, W. H. Robinson, Wm. F. James ,Lyda James, Daniel Franklin, Elizabeth Franklin, Walter Coles, Cornelia Coles, Rebecca Fields, Bertie Johnson and Julia Brown. The following spring the Rev. M. C. Smith took charge and the mission prospered numerically, spiritually and financially. They pro- cured the use of the Chapel on Warren Avenue and Eleventh Street and were recognized as a regular church, the Shiloh Baptist, 1903. Rev. Smith was released to the Second Baptist Church, of Butler, after seven years' labor. He was succeeded by Rev. E. L. Jasper for three years. Rev. W. A. Mason, of Pittsburgh, was called. Under his ministration the church took on a new life and the members be- came embued with a desire for a permanent house of worship. This desire was realized when in 1914 their new brick building on Warren Avenue was dedicated. Deacons: Thos. F. Tucker, Wm. Hayden, John Jackson, P. A. Coles, Geo. Roberts. Trustees: Chas. W. Jackson, T. F. Tucker, S. T. Campbell, L. Robinson. THE HISTORY OF APOLLO. 81 FIRST REFORMED CHURCH. The congregation of this church was organized in the Diamond Hall, July 23, 1892, with 40 members. Shortly after their organ- ization the members decided to build. The property of Rev. R. A. Jamison on the corner of Warren Avenue and South Second Street was purchased for $4,000. The corner stone of the present building was laid October 23, 1893. The church was dedicated March 11, 1894. The congregation has had four pastors: Rev. J. N. Naly, now of Tipton, Iowa, from June 1, 1893 until November 1, 1900, Rev. D. E. Masters, now of Huntingdon, Pa., from May 1, 1901 to July 30, 1905. Rev. D. W. Kerr, whose wife died during his ministration here, served from December 22, 1905 until November 6, 1914. The pres- ent pastor, D. J. Wolf took up the work April 1, 1915. The congregation was enrolled as a mission by the Home Mission Board July, 1893 and continued to receive aid until July 14, 1911, when it was declared self-supporting. ST. JAMES ROMAN CATHOLIC CHURCH. Thomas Shorter, a colored man, was the first Catholic in Apollo to enroll in the church here. He with James Mallon, James Reynolds and others who had come here to work met in James Reynolds' house in 1884, and had Rev. McTighe, of Leechburg say Mass. Thos. Shorter was bom a slave, the chattel of Dr. Jenkins. He was a slave until the Emancipation Proclamation. He died in Apollo in 1896, aged 99 years. He was buried in the Catholic Cemetery in Saltsburg. Father Fidelius was the first priest in Apollo. The church was built in North Apollo in 1892. It was a small frame building. Father Constantine was the second pastor. Father Schmitt was the third and last pastor at this place. When the rolling mill was removed to Vandergrift this building was sold to Dominic Kiens who occupies it as a residence. The Catholic Church at Vandergrift is one of the finest structures in the neighborhood. HISTORY OF THE W. C. T. U. The Woman's Christian Temperance Union, state and national, was organized in 1864, under the leadership of Prances E. Willard. Apollo responded to the forward movement in temperance reforms by various organizations; the W. C. T. U., Temperance Alliance, Sons of Temperance, Band of Hope, etc. The present W. C. T. U. was organized in 1889 with Mary J. Guthrie as president, which position she occupied until her death in December of 1913. The W. C. T. U. has led the opposition to the repeal of the Pro- hibitory Act governing Apollo; to the operating of the "Original Package" act at Apollo; and to the repeal efforts to establish a licensed house in Paulton and in West Apollo; and from the first, up 82 THE HISTORY OF APOLLO. to the refusal of license in the March Court of 1916, the Union has had a rare experience in reform work in that they have never known defeat. In 1909 the W. C. T. U. Building on North Second Street was planned and erected under the direction of the president, Mrs. M. J. Guthrie, to be used as headquarters for all W. C. T. U. work and to provide a suitable room for a public library. The amount expended in this enterprise was $3,660. All of this has been paid except six hundred dollars (1916) which will be met by six payments provided for in the regular work of the society. The Woman's Christian Temperance Union has held steadily to one leading dominant purpose — a campaign of education. Slow processes, persistently carried out, which alone could change the sentiment that had been maturing for centuries in the custom and habits of nations, and create a sentiment that would demand and support the final abolition of the liquor traffic. To this end the Apollo W. C. T. U. with every other Union in the United States, has done its part; petitioning, remonstrating, financing. Some of the largest advances made: In 1882 the international petitions for a quarterly temperance lesson in the Sunday school were put into circulation. In the same year, the W. C. T. U. with Mrs. Mary H. Hunt as their speaker first presented the subject of Scientific Temperance In- struction in the public schools to a state convention of county super- intendents of public schools, held in Pittsburgh and later before every legislature; securing Scientific Temperance Instruction laws in every state and territory. Education against the universal custom of serving an intoxicant in the observance of the Lord's Supper has resulted in the use of unfermented wine at the Lord's table in Protestant churches. The Apollo Union was represented in Washington during the session of Congress that abolished the Army Canteen; which act sec- retary Daniels so finely supplemented by eliminating intoxicating liquors from the Navy. The saloon has been driven from the national capital, from all institutions, homes, parks and reservations controlled by the Federal government. Nineteen states have been carried for Prohibition and a large amount of territory in Canada and Europe. Eighty per cent, of the territory of the United States is dry territory and 60,000,000 of the population now live under prohibition law. The Press is fast adapting its columns to changing sentiment: most of the magazines and hundreds of newspapers excluding liquor advertisements. The National Pharmacopoeia Committee has reduced alcohol from its old-time rank in the medical world. THE HISTORY OF APOLLO. 83 Crowning these and all other advancements made in temperance reform is the wide-spread and growing demand in the United States for national prohibition. The W. C. T. U. is doing great things in the world, in which the Apollo Union as every other union, contributes its part. The Apollo W. C. T. U. consists of 234 active members, 71 in the Young Woman's Branch, 185 Honorary Members (men) and 223 in the Children's Branch; making over seven hundred persons enrolled on the books of the Apollo W. C. T. U. The officers of the W. C. T. U. are: president, Laura A. Guthrie; vice president, Mrs. Ida Cowan; recording secretary, Mrs. Annie Orr; corresponding secretary, Mrs. Elizabeth Willard; treasurer, Mrs. Mary Calhoun. "Y" officers: president, Mrs. Edna Johnston; vice president, Mrs. Laura Knepshield; recording secretary, Elizabeth Jones; cor- responding secretary, Sara Foster ;treasurer, Susan B. Hilty. Sec- retary of Honorary Members, Mrs. Dora Conn. Secretary T. L. B., Mrs. Alice Saxon. MILITARY. The first military company of which there is a record was the Charleston Guards. This was in Kiskiminetas Township prior to 1840. The next was the Independent Blues, sometimes called the Kiskimin- etas Blues, of which Mr. B. H. Scott, of Pittsburgh, was drummer boy. Mr. Scott informed the writer that there were six companies of militia in this neighborhood before the war. By taking two companies out of Indiana County there were enough to form a brigade. These two companies drilled at Clarksburg and West Lebanon. Muster days were usually the fourth of July and the tenth of September. The Independent Blues were mustered into service June 5, 1861 at the outbreak of the civil war. It was assigned as Co. G, 11th Pa. Re- serves. S. M. Jackson was captain. He became brigadier-general at the close of the war. James Speer was the second captain and was promoted to major. James Mills succeeded him as captain. The fol- lowing list includes the volunteers from Apollo and immediate vicin- ity. There were many enlisted from the neighborhood of Spring Church and Long Run. Among these are T. A. Cochran and B. H. Scott who are identified with Apollo in many ways. Of those further out who were killed in action are the names of Washington Anderson, James H. Cochran and Graves Risher. 84 THE HISTORY OF APOLLO. List of soldiers in the Civil War who enlisted from Apollo and the immediate vicinity. (Data furnished by S. F. Hildebrand.) C. G, 11th Pennsylvania Reserves recruited by S. M. Jackson at the first call for troops. From Apollo Borough. *S. M. Jackson David Alexander *James Speer Thomas James, killed at South *James Mills Mountain. *Joseph Cline *James H. Mcllwain Samuel Stewart, killed at South *John Scott Mountain, Md. *John Toomy *Wm. Ford *Wm. Withington Daniel Jack *Absalom Withington *John Speer *A. L. Zimmerman *Hugh Forbes *Johnston Brown From Immediate Vicinity. Forward Jackson, killed at South *Robert Hunter Mountain Dallas Cupps *Thompson Jackson Johnston Carney, killed at Gaines George Gourley, killed at Antie- Mill, W. Va. tarn, Md. *John Gamble Benton Coulter Co. I, 78th Reg. Vol. recruited Oct. 12, 1861, by R. D. Elwood, From Apollo Boro. *George Black *Neal Devers *John Mcllwain Vandoran Hunter *Wm. H. Henry *Joseph McLaughlin *Wm. Murphy *01iver Shannon James Bair * Henry Turney John Chapman, killed at Stone *James Uptegraft River, Tennessee From Vicinity. * Samuel Kerr Aaron Eckman, killed at Stone *Wm. Kerr River *Hezekiah Ashbaugh Robert Kerr *Joseph Kerr *George McMillen James Wilson Co. E, 139th Pa. Vol. Recruited August 1862 by Rev. I. A. Pierce, a young Methodist Minister. *Rev. I. A. Pierce *Paul Wilmot *John Anderson *Andrew Wilson *John Bash *Robert Alexander *David Ford *Erastus Smith * Reuben Freshwater Charles Whitworth, killed at Ced- *John Jones ar Creek, Va. THE HISTORY OF APOLLO. 85 *Smith Jack, Sr. *Harvey Withington Samuel Spicher, killed in Wilder- David Freetly ness, Va. S. F. Hildebrand From Vicinity. *George Bellas *Robert Moore *John Burkett Hugh Owens *David Bair James Rumbaugh *Louis Cupps John Shirley *James Graham *Jesse Wilson Hugh Kerr, killed at Ft. Stevens, *Amos Wilmot Washington, D. C. *John T. Kerr *John Lininger *Joseph Miller *James Stivenson *James Chambers, 103d Regt. Pa. Thompson Kerr Vol. 14th Cavalry. James Hunter, died in Anderson- *Newton Shannon ville Prison Joseph Watt 4th Cavalry. *George Spielman *David Spielman 5th Heavy Artillery. *Wm. Kirkwood * Daniel Uptegraft 102d Regt. Pa. Vol. Samuel Bovard, killed at Cedar *Wm. Lutz Creek *Robert Williamson 63d Regt. *S. S. Jack 155th Regt. Theophilus Callen, killed at Cold Harbor 105th Regt. Murray Watson, killed at Gettysburg 11th Pa. Vol. A. L. Coulter Regiment not known. *John B. Guthrie, Capt. Co. A, Pa. *Patrick Turney, Co. G, Pa. Heavy Mil. Unattached Artillery *Wm. T. Jackson, Co. D, 2d Bat. *Jack Ford, Co. G, Pa. Heavy Joseph B. Jackson, Co. D, 2d Bat. Artillery *John Vorhour Of the soldiers mentioned in this article those marked with asterisk died since the war. One died in prison. 16 killed in battle. 70 died since the war. 20 are yet living. 7 yet living in Apollo at this date, May 25th, 1916. 86 THE HISTORY OF APOLLO. Soldiers of Spanish-American War Volunteers from Apollo. Fifth Regiment, Co. D. Hays W. Miller Tenth Regiment, Co. I. Roy Bair Frank Barber Sixteenth Regiment, Co. G. Frank W. Jackson, First Lieut. Clark W. Hazlett Dr. W. L. McBryar, Sergeant A. Frank McCormick Philip A. Roller, Sergeant Frank J. Mulhollond Grant B. Townsend, Q. M. Sergeant Frank M. Newingham Fred E. Weinal, Corporal Thos. S. Shepherd Harry Bowers Chas. A. Stitt Wm. H. Dickey Wm. A. Swauger Edw. J. Flesher Hayes Weinal Eighteenth Regiment, Co. A. Harry M. Bell Leslie McAninch, Corporal O. Howard Cochran Earl W. Ritchey James Kinney Jesse Ritchey David Lowery Earl Leroy White Regular Army Service. Russell Owens Ed. L. Moore Michael Siren Wm. Fitszimmons, Artillery Wm. Jones Medical Corps. Dr. M. C. Householder Dr. W. L. McBryar, A. Frank McCormick and Leslie McAninch are deceased. BANDS. Apollo has had many bands to furnish music when required on "State Occasions." The first of which a record can be obtained was a martial band. This was back in the "fifties." The names have been furnished as accurately as possible at this date. Fifers: Wm. Jack, T. C. Kerr, Isaac Bell; tenor drums: Johnston Withington, Hugh Forbes, Erastus Smith and Joseph McLaughlin; bass drum: George Kerr. This band was in connection with the military company. Drill days were the fourth of July and tenth of September. P-> THE HISTORY OF APOLLO. 87 FIRST BRASS BAND. This was organized in 1857. Comet: Wm. Jack; second alto: Andrew Jack; first alto: Daniel Jack; tenor: S. S. Jack; bass: Joseph Cline; bass drum: Hugh Owens. This band was disbanded with the onset of the Civil War. About this tiine Hugh Forbes had taught Geo. W. Hildebrand, aged 12, to beat a snare drum, he with L. D. James, Wm. James and Thos. Henderson started another martial band. Hildebrand would whistle and James would pick up the air on the fife, they not having music. This band made some money and on the return of the soldiers from the war, another brass band was organized, the members of the martial band contributing their money. The members of this band were S. S. Jack, leader, Daniel Jack, Matthew Jack, Wm. Foale, L. D. James, Geo. Hildebrand, Cyrus Kepple and Hugh Owens. This band was succeeded by another reorganized and the fourth brass band became the original G. A. R. Band. This band became disrupted during the strike in the mill. The Young America Band was then organized with Chas. S. Jack as leader. They had the honor of a trip to Buffalo with G. A. R. encampment. Samuel Free organized a band shortly after the members of this band became careless in attending. This band went with Post 88 of Pittsburgh to Denver with Syl. F. Hildebrand as drum major. A few other bands of temporary organization succeeded this. The Cochran Band, under Prof. Paul Cochran and the Tamaqua Club Band furnish joy to the community at present. POLITICAL. Among those who have achieved political honors by election or appointment are the following: Samuel Owens became a judge in California. Michael Cochran became an associate judge in Armstrong County, Pennsylvania. John B. Guthrie held a position in the Surveyor's Office in Harris- burg under Gov. Hartranft. Hugh McCandless, County Superintendent of Armstrong County. James H. Chambers, Sheriff and Registrar and Recorder of Arm- strong County. Jefferson Elwood, Treasurer of Armstrong County. General S. M. Jackson, elected to House of Representatives in 1869; to State Senate in 1874; appointed Revenue Collector, serving from 1884 to 1888; and elected State Treasurer in 1893. Captain James Mill served a number of political appointments in Montana. 88 THE HISTORY OF APOLLO. George W. McNees, County Treasurer, Sheriff, Legislator and State Senator. John F. Whitworth, Corporation Deputy in office of Secretary of the Commonwealth. J. W. Leech, County Superintendent of Cambria County; District Attorney of Cambria County; and Commissioner of the Workmen's Compensation Board. W. Murray Jackson, County Superintendent of Armstrong County. Frank W. Jackson, State Legislator from 1902 to 1906 and State Bank Examiner. Andrew Gallagher, County Commissioner of Armstrong County. Erwin E. Cochran, Sheriff of Armstrong County. Thomas Shaner, Sheriff of Armstrong County. Mrs. T. J. Henry, elected School Director in Apollo Borough, being the first woman school director as well as the first woman elected to any office in the county. Colonel Thomas G. Allen, of the 80th Illinois Volunteers and one of the Electors of Abraham Lincoln is at present a citizen of Apollo. PERSONAL MENTION. "Nellie Bly" or Miss Elizabeth Cochrane, locally known as "Pink" Cochrane is a daughter of Judge Michael Cochrane. She be- came famous as a newspaper reporter and for her daring to get copy. Her trip around the world beat Jules Verne's "Around the World in Eighty Days." She is now in Vienna as war correspond- ent. Her mother and two brothers, A. P. and Harry also made a trip around the world at a later period. Dr. J. W. Goodsell, of New Kensington, who spent some of his boyhood days in Apollo, was a member of the Peary Expedition to the North Pole. W. D. Boyce, of Chicago, who attended public school in this place, is a prominent editor, explorer and traveler. He has lately organ- ized a movement for the training of boys. It is called the Lone Scouts and Mr. Boyce is Chief Totem. Prof. D. R. Sumstine, of Peabody High School, was a former principal of Apollo schools. He has had special mention in his study of fungi. One new species he discovered has been given his name. S. A. Davis, formerly of Apollo, is now first vice president of the American Sheet & Tinplate Company. S. M. Knepshield and Thomas Mulholland, boys of our navy, were with the fleet of war vessels in their remarkable cruise around the world with Admiral "Bob" Evans. THE HISTORY OF APOLLO. 89 OLD INHABITANTS. Mrs. Daniel Jack (nee Smith), is the oldest native inhabitant of Apollo. Among those who have been identified with the history of the town and are past four score are Mrs. Margaret James who will be 88 in July, this Centennial year; Mrs. Mary A. Henry who was 87 in May; C. J. Kepple is 84; Thomas Johnston, 85; Mrs. Dema Jack and Mrs. Sarah Drake are each 83; and Martin Bash who was 80 in February. BOARD OF TRADE OF APOLLO. Conforming to a suggestion that a Board of Trade should be or- ganized, a preliminary meeting was held February 6, 1897, E. A. Townsend was made temporary president and A. L. Cochran, secre- tary pro tem. A committee of three, C. W. Kepple, M. E. Uncapher and W. J. Guthrie was appointed to draft by-laws and constitution. On the report of this committee, it was decided to call the association The Board of Trade of Apollo. A constitution and by-laws were adopted and a committee appointed to solicit membership. The an- nual dues were placed at $5.00 per annum. In 1904 the dues were reduced to $3.00. On February 16, a permanent organization was made with the following officers: president, S. M. Jackson; vice pres- ident, E. A. Townsend; treasurer, S. M. Nelson, secretary, F. T. Wray. The salary of the secretary was fixed at $50 a year. A board of man- agers was elected consisting of seven members, W. J. Guthrie, J. N. Nelson, S. M. Jackson, W. S. Beamer, J. A. Kennedy, E. A. Townsend and N. H. Gosser. During the following week 105 members were enrolled. It was decided to have the organization incorporated, which was accordingly done. F. T. Wray was secretary until 1900. Charles P. Wolfe, from 1900 to 1908 and Ira J. Wray from 1908 to 1916. The Board of Trade has assisted in the location of the woolen mill, the cooperage plant and was of material assistance in the location of the Apollo Steel Company's plant. It took over the site from the syndicate and the other property owners and transferred the title to the Steel Company. At the citizens' meeting $10,425 were raised in about one and one- half hours. A finance committee was appointed and by solicitation the total funds were raised to $16,300. The Board has not secured many industries but there are "sins of omission as well as of com- mission" and some of those proposed that could have been secured have turned out to be excellent for the promoters elsewhere. The present officers are E. A. Townsend, president; L. Todd Owens, vice president; Chas. Truby, secretary; John H. Jackson, treasurer; with Milo D. Shaw, W. C. Campbell and T. J. Henry the remaining members of the Board of Managers. 90 THE HISTORY OF APOLLO. THE WOMAN'S CLUB. The Woman's Club of Kiskiminetas Valley was organized in 1908 and federated in the same year. It became a member of the Congress of Clubs of Western Pennsylvania in 1910. It was the first federated club in the valley and, as the name implies, included in its member- ship women from the neighboring towns. Gradually as the club movement grew, these women formed clubs in their own towns, drop- ping their membership in the "mother club." The club now has ninety-five members. Regular meetings are held twice a month in the club room in the W. C. T. U. building, where the most important topics of the present day and historical past are discussed. The year 1916 has been Pennsylvania year, a fitting topic in view of the cen- tennial of our town. Since its organization the Woman's Club has taken an active part in the civic movements of Apollo. It has initiat- ed a number of movements for the betterment of the town, such as the placing of public fountains and waste baskets. It was the Woman's Club that presented the first sanitary drinking fountain to our public school. Past presidents: Mrs. J. T. Klugh, Mrs. T. J. Henry, Mrs. G. H. Clement, Mrs. F. T. Wray, Miss Eliza McMullen, Mrs. C. W. Bollinger, Mrs. Margaret McBryar. The officers for the year are Mrs. L. Todd Owens, president; Mrs. J. W. Brockway, vice president; Mrs. Geo. J. Bortz, second vice president; Mrs. C. P. Wolfe, recording sec- retary; Mrs. R. D. Fiscus, corresponding secretary; Mrs. Margaret McBryar, treasurer. APOLLO FREE LIBRARY. The first library was in connection with the Apollo Library As- sociation, organized in 1878. Membership was $1.00 and annual dues one dollar. Books were thus brought into the community and much benefit to the youth of Apollo was brought about by this institution. Interest finally languished and the association disbanded after sever- al years. The Apollo Free Library was founded by the Woman's Club in 1908. It is the only public library in Armstrong County. It now has nearly 2,000 volumes on its shelves and on the tables in the reading rooms are all the best magazines. The salary of the librarian. Miss Agnes Mullen, is paid by the borough. All the other expenses are provided for by the club. The board of trustees comprises three men from town, one member of the town council and four members of the club. Of this board, John H. Jackson is president and W. F. Pauly, treasurer. The reading room is open three evenings a week. As many as ten thousand volumes have been circulated in a year. THE HISTORY OF APOLLO. 91 THE BUSINESS MEN'S ASSOCIATION. Nearly every business man in Apollo is identified with this as- sociation. It is incorporated and federated with the State Business Men's Association. It meets in the P. O. S. of A. Hall. Matters pertaining to the general welfare of the town as well as business in- terests are discussed. The officers are: president, W. F. Devers; vice president, S. C. McMillen; secretary, Ira J. Wray; and W. C. Campbell, treasurer. FRATERNAL ORDERS. The first lodge instituted in Apollo was the I. O. O. F. Decem- ber 14, 1867. Good Templars, 1868; Masons, March 4, 1869; Order of United American Mechanics, 1875; Improved Order of Redmen, 1875 Royal Arcanum, 1879; G. A. R., Post 89, 1878; Knights of Pythias November 11, 1873; Knights of Maccabees, 1893; Ladies of Maccabees 1910; B. P. 0. Elks, October 15, 1897; Knights of Malta, August 17 1905; Dames of Malta, February 27, 1914; Patriotic Sons of America January 10, 1903; Junior Order United American Mechanics, 1888 L. O. O. Moose, February 12, 1910; Sons of Veterans, November 14 1908; Daughters of Veterans, Rachel S. Coulter, 1914; Relief Corps 1888; American Insurance Union, 1897; Sisters of Rebecca, April 1907 Order of Eastern Star, May 1912; Order of Golden Seal, October 13, 1913; Woodmen of the World, 1914. It may be interesting to note that the Charles S. Whitworth Post, 89, organized January 21, 1878 with 29 members has five of them yet holding membership and that Daniel Jack was elected Quarter Master and has held the office continuously. The Post was named after Corporal Whitworth who was killed in the battle of Cedar Creek, Va., October 19, 1864. CLUBS. Space will not permit of more than the mention of some of the clubs which have furnished amusement to the youth of Apollo. The Archery Club was of but a season's duration and the skill of the mem- bers did not rival that of the red bowmen who had preceded them. One of the most noteworthy clubs because of its uniqueness was that of the Muggins Family, organized in 1877. This club had a star and crescent for a badge and cardinal red for its colors. Each mem- ber had a name as follows: The father of the family was A. P. Coch- rane who was called Dudley. His sons were: Enoch Muggins, M. E. Uncapher; Fizikan, T. J. Henry; G. Washington, J. W. Leech; Eph- rihamus, W. E. Lloyd; Toby, H. F. Jack; Ezekiel, James Kirkwood; Josiah Woolbert, Harry C. Wray; Mike, M. Hermond Cochran. This family held a reunion in the opera house December 30, 1887. The Acacia Club of Masonic affiliation is yet in existence and is noted for its banquets. The Pastime Club was a factor for fun in its time. 02 THE HISTORY OF APOLLO. The Warrendale was formally opened in 1895. The Black Cats were organized in 1898 and consisted of twenty members, Edward Bing, Prof. W. M. Jackson, Russell Lloyd, Wm. Pauly, Chas. Wagner, Dr. J. B, Rugh, Thos. Sutton, Wm. Kirkwood, E. E. Cochran, John Coch- ran, H. M. Rogers, Dr. W. J. Carnahan, Roy Wherry, Wm. Biehl, Theo. Biehl, Tony Altmire, Prof. I. L. Smith, Dr. Colin Cameron, W. L. George and A. M. Orr., and they were a fine bunch of Black Cats. The Delta Phi was organized by Miss Jessie Fullerton. It con- sisted of about thirty young ladies of the Presbyterian denomination, and it was a real secret society. The Tamaqua Club was organized in 1914. It has a nicely furnished room in the Malta Hall and has a band in connection with the club. Wild Life League was organized March 18, 1916; president, George Brown; vice president, John Hilty; secretary, Clyde King; treasurer, W. F. Pauly; game committee, C. H. Truby, chairman; Fish Committee, E. H. Snodgrass; Forest Committee, Jesse Hilty. Good Roads and Motor Club was organized with 77 members in 1916. L. Todd Owens, president; D. C. Shull, secretary. It was fed- erated the same year. The Boy Scout Movement was introduced by Rev. Gregg in 1912. Not having the necessary time to develop it, the small band soon dropped their hikes. In 1913-4 Lloyd Frantz had a large number of scouts under his instruction. Besides his own teaching, he had at specified times, lectures on first aid and on Nature given by profes- sional men of the town. At present Harry Fishel is scoutmaster and has an enthusiastic troop. They meet in the hall above Henry's garage. A large number of Lone Scouts are in town but thus far have no tribal relations. THE MIDDLE DECADE. During the middle decade of its existence Apollo saw many changes. Many of the original log cabins were yet standing, but frame houses were being built instead. There were but few pave- ments, nearly all sidewalks being strewn with ashes as coal was the chief fuel. Geese and goats, sheep and shoats as well as cows, roamed the streets at will. The canal was yet running but the latter end of this period saw it abandoned and the railroad take its place. In the beginning of this decade Apollo took its place as an iron town. Nails were first manufactured but this soon gave way to the product- ion of sheet iron. The old basin which furnished water for the power for the mill and served as a public skating park in the winter, also became a thing of the past when dam No. 2 broke and the old steam- boat engine was installed. The civil war came and the town con- tributed its quota of soldiers to fight for union and welcomed those who returned to resume the even tenor of their ways. During the absence of the boys, the mill was run by English and Welsh work- THE HISTORY OF APOLLO. 93 men. A decade before, the county bridge had been built and grad- ually Main Street became a side street and North Street the thor- oughfare. John Vorhaur still kept tavern on the corner of Water and Main. There was a foundry on the latter street and David Watt and John Bair had their blacksmith shops there also. The Withington House had shifted and so had all the stores. John Smith was keep- ing tavern on the corner of North and Canal Streets. There was a slaughter house in Drake's stable on Coalbank Street. James Ed- wards still eked out a precarious livelihood making bread baskets out of straw and hickory splits on "Potato" Street. Samuel Jack had a barrel factory on the canal where the boys stole hoops and rolled them down the hill from the limit of town to the canal bridge. Christopher Kepple had his undertaking shop at the head of Thirty Foot Street and the writer remembers of the nights he was awak- ened by the tap, tap, tapping of the hammer as Mr. Kepple was making to order the coffin for some one to be placed in and carried on a bier to the old graveyard. On North Street at different periods of the decade John Uncafer, Philip Uncapher, W. C. Bovard, Elwood & Wilson, and John B. Chambers had their general stores in which could be bought any- thing from a stick of candy to a suit of clothes or a pound of nails to a plowshare. Wm. Wray had a drugstore and Robert Hunter a tinshop. John Alexander had a candy store but he augmented his income by selling patent medicines, butter and eggs. Whitworth had his store where Todd Owens keeps and David Byrer had a tailor shop on North. Simon Whitlinger built his three storied frame building and it was considered an inovation in the town. Mr. Whitlinger had a large tanyard on Mill Street and on the same street stood Brenner's mill as it yet stands at the foot of North Second. During this eventful period the schoolhouse became too small and a two storied frame was built on the present school site and Wm. Davis was principal and Mary Llewellyn, primary teacher. The Presbyterian and U. P.'s still worshiped in the old stone church but the end of the decade saw it razed to build the brick at the head of North. Philip Long had his wagon shop on Church Street opposite the present Presbyterian parsonage. The town extended to the location of the Opera House. The tallow candle was used for light but the kerosene lamp was pressing it hard. Few people had any other but rag carpet and paper blinds. The melodeon or cheap organs were the musical instruments of the good and the fiddle furnished music for the ungodly. Alto- gether the middle decade was an important period in the town's history. d4 THE HISTORY OF APOLLO. JUSTICES. Michael Cochran has already been mentioned as a justice in the township. William Watson, also, was a justice in the township and Wm. Watt, of DuBois has sent to Ira J. Wray an old deed executed by 'Squire Watson. The deed is a relic inasmuch as it records that Wm. Johnston and Thos. Hoge, not being satisfied with the title through sheriff's sale of the tract called Warren's Sleeping Ground, had taken out a new patent for said tract. In this deed it mentions the patent as dated May 25, 1815 and conveyed by Hoge to Wm. Speer. In this document Johnston and Speer convey the title of lot No. 36 in Warren to John Uncafer for $23. Date of conveyance January 8, 1817. It is signed by Wm. Johnston and Ally Johnston, whose name is written Alice in the body of the deed but she signs her pet name. It is signed also, Wm. Speer and Agness Speer. John Croll, Recorder. Another justice of note was James Guthrie. He came to Warren in 1833 when 27 years old. He was a surveyor, a tanner and then engaged in real estate. He held the office of Justice of the Peace for ten years. Wm. Henry was another notable justice. He was a stonemason and worked along the canal from 1826 until it was fin- ished at Johnstown in 1829. He engaged in the Hope Salt Works, which he and his father-in-law. Dr. Samuel Talmage established at the site of the Indian Town Kiskiminetas above Leechburg, for twenty years. He came to Apollo in 1850. He got his first com- mission as justice in 1853. He served in that capacity for forty-one years altho he was a Democrat in a Republican town. He attended to the duties of his office until a few weeks before his death which occurred December 2, 1898 in his ninety-third year. He was well versed in law and it was his pride that few of his decisions were ever reversed in court.. J. Q. Cochrane is at present justice. He has been identified as teacher and lawyer with Apollo for many years and has always advocated any movement beneficial to the town. W. W. Hill, the other justice, is proprietor of the news stand and a cigar store. CONSTABLES. Among the old-time constables who were the terror of the small boys were Wm. Miller and H. A. Rudolf. They were both re-elected many times. The former was almost a life-time sexton of the Presbyterian Church. He lived to be a nonogenarian. The latter was the chief shoe merchant for many years. John Jack, who is an ex-constable is now visiting in Apollo. He is 83 years old. THE HISTORY OF APOLLO. 95 SUBURBS. Paulton, on the Westmoreland side, is a flourishing village. It has a post office of its own. It has a hotel and several stores. The schools, two rooms have about eighty pupils. The town was named after John Paul, who was a prominent property owner and resident. He died in 1891, aged 88. Oklahoma was laid out on the Wm. Chambers farm opposite Apollo in Westmoreland County. It was started about the time Oklahoma Territory was opened for settlers. Some wag dubbed the village Oklahoma and the name took. It has two general stores and two schools with 100 pupils. Cherry Lane, located on the Hilty farm south of town was so called by Harry F. Jack who had purchased a plot of ground and laid it out in lots. Two lanes bordered by cherry trees suggested the name. Vilas, the long row of houses along the river south of Apollo was so named by Labanna Stitt, an ardent Democrat. He named it after the postmaster-general. Mr. Stitt moved from Vilas to Blairs- ville to take charge of a gas line. He met an untimely death by suf- focation while attempting to shut off a regulator. West Penn is the name used for the mining village. Skibo was the name given by one of the company but the miners did not take kindly to a Scotch name. These three suburbs furnish about eighty pupils who attend school in a two story building in Cherry Lane. Sugar Hollow, an extension of Eleventh Street, was, when the town was young, a favorite place for making maple sugar and syrup. McKinstry Hill is a small settlement east of town. It was laid out by Wm. McKinstry on his farm. The children attend Sugar Hollow School. The building is of two stories but only one room is used at present. There are thirty pupils. North Apollo, usually called Pegtown, was called so because the houses were built hastily when Simon Truby laid out the plot. Near- ly all the houses were set up on locust posts and walls built later. As they were set on "pegs" the name appeared appropriate to some one. Allison received its name from the Allison Lane along which it was built. Luxemburg Heights is built on the Truby farm. It was peopled at first by Luxemburgers who were employed mostly at the galvan- izing shops connected with the mill at that time. The name was bestowed on this settlement by Dr. T. J. Henry in reporting births and other casualties. North Apollo, Allison and Luxemburg Heights furnish two hundred pupils who attend at the latter place where there is a large school building. 96 THE HISTORY OF APOLLO. THE BIG MAPLE. On the morning of October 21, 1911, occurred the "Racket Store Fire.' The large maple tree, which was the most noted landmark m Apollo, caught fire in its hollow trunk where the sparrows had built and bred for years. The firemen fighting the flames of the burn- ing store and the Guthrie residence turned the stream on the tree and thought the fire extinguished. From a few sparks the smouldering fire unnoticed gained headway during the day and in the evening suddenly burst forth in flame. So fierce were the flames pouring out of the shattered top that it was plain the old tree was doomed. By night it was spectacular. More than thirty feet of the huge trunk were in flames, the sparks rising and circling in the heated air above the hundreds of spectators who stood watching the tragic passing of the giant tree. Fearing for the electric wires, men placed guys on the limbs and attacked the trunk with axes. By dint of chopping and the fierceness of the flame the once pride of the forest soon lay a charred and sorrowful heap. This tree stood at the N. W. comer of Warren Avenue and North Third Street. It is mentioned as "The Big Maple" in documents dated 1806. The plot of ground upon which it stood was laid out by James Guthrie in such a way as to preserve the tree. Many regrets were expressed at its loss and even school children carried chips away as souvenirs. This tree was 21 feet in circumference and more than 100 feet tall. MISCELLANEOUS MATERIAL. The town was promoted by Wm. Johnston and Rev. Speer. It was surveyed by Wm. Watson. The first house completed was built by John Black. The oldest house yet standing was built by Robert Hanna in 1817. It is on South Second Street and is owned by the J. F. Whitlinger heirs. John Cochran was the carpenter who built the first frame build- ing. It took him and his brother, Thomas, two years to build the house now owned by Mrs. Younkins on South Fourth Street. Most of the lumber was worked out by hand. Dr. Wm. McCullough built the first brick house. It is yet stand- ing on the corner of First Street and Pennsylvania Avenue. The first stone building was the old Presbyterian Church. The first concrete building was erected by Harry Wood in 1905. The first postmaster was Milton Dally. The first doctor, first burgess and first editor was Dr. Robert McKissen. The first licensed tavern was opened in the first house by James Horrell in 1824. The second was by Samuel Gordon. The first constable was Andrew Cunningham. THE HISTORY OF APOLLO. 97 The first canal boat built and run west of the Allegheny Mount- ains was built in Apollo. The first ferry was run by Owen Jones. The county bridge was built in 1846-7. It was carried away in 1881. The first schoolhouse in the borough was erected in 1850. Te first paper, The Warren Lacon, was issued in 1835. The first secret society, the Odd Fellows in 1867. The first bank in 1871. The first grist mill in 1849. The first iron mill in 1854 for manufacture of nails. The first person buried in the old graveyard was an Alford boy. The first minister to preach a sermon was Rev. Lee; first in- stalled. Rev. Jos. Harper. The first lawyer was Jacob Freetly. The first tailor, John T. Smith. Shinichi Ando, a chemist in the employ of the Apollo Iron & Steel Company, in 1894, was the only Japanese resident of Apollo. Yee Mon, laundryman, is the only Chinese resident at present. At other time there have been from one to six. The first motor boat was owned by Frank Whitlinger. The first motor cycle by Martin Wittmer. The first bicycle owned in town was one with a large wheel in front and a very small one in the rear. It was owned by George S. Kepple in 1880. The first Borough Horse was stolen. The first sheet iron was made in 1863. The first glass front store was R. S. Cochran's Cigar Store. The first piano in town was bought by Dr. Wm. McCullough. The first telephone was put in by C. W. Bollinger in 1894. The first trolley car came up from Leechburg, March 13, 1906. The first Chautauqua was held in 1914. The first photographer was Mr. C. C. Shadle, gallery in old school house. The first Eastman kodak in town was owned by T. J. Henry. Some of the pictures for this history were produced with it. Streets were lighted with electricity in 1901. The garbage disposal furnace built in 1914. The first Apollo fair in 1890. The first water company in 1888. The first vote on local option was held in 1873. Apollo voted 109 against and 4 in favor of license. The first poultry show was held in December 1908. The first Free Library was opened in 1908. The W. C. T. U. Building was dedicated in 1910. The first moving pictures were shown here by M. E. Luton in April 1906. 98 THE HISTORY OF APOLLO. The first community Christmas tree was in 1912. Wm. Dickey has a mould for making spoons out of old pewter teapots, cups, etc. Hathaway, the lock jumper, was drowned at the outlet lock. He used to run down the hill and jump across the lock sixteen feet instead of crossing the plank. He missed it only once. Joe McGuire while at Eldersridge, in his boyhood days, saw eight Indians following a branch of the old Frankstown Trail through the fields and forests even after the township road and railroads were the highways. D. H. Williams has been Apollo Messenger to Pittsburgh for twenty-seven years. He has missed no trips except on Sundays and holidays. He has traveled more than 680,000 miles or 27 times as far as around the world. Among the industries of the past in Apollo and not heretofore mentioned are coverlet weaving, making of chairs,, mill-wheels brooms, baskets, copperware, cigars, gloves, the manufacture of lad- ders, marble cutting and boat building. The lots now occupied by Owens and Clowes at head of First Street was lot No. 10. It was sold to Robert Camahan by deed of January 1817. In 1832 it was sold for taxes of 1830, 4c and 1831, 3c and costs for same amounting in all to $17. Evidently not much of a real estate investment. AUTOMOBILES. The first automobile owned in the immediate vicinity of Apollo was a Toledo Steamer, run by steampower, purchased by Henry D. Bellas, of West Apollo in 1900. The first one owned in the borough was by J. T. Klugh in 1902. This was a Winton, gasoline power. At present Apollo has five public garages and over seventy machines within the borough limits. AEROPLANES. Thomas Wittmer owned the only aeroplane in this neighborhood and Joseph Scott is the only licensed aviator. John Kowalsky, a former citizen, invented an aeroplane which was successfully flown on several occasions. His gas engine is one of the most efficient on the market. THE POUND. There used to be a pound at the foot of South Third Street. It was an enclosure which extended across the street and was used to imprison captured cattle caught roaming the streets after their free- dom of the city had been abrogated by ordinance. The fine was usually one dollar, one half of which went to the constable who captured the animal and one-half into the town treasury. The dog- catcher, altho sadly needed is an official of the past. COL. S. M. JACKSON AND HIS HORSE, FRANK. (Courtesy of Samuel Jones.) THE HISTORY OF APOLLO. 99 THE BASIN. The old basin was a reservoir extending from North Fifth to North Seventh Street, on the west of the present railway. It was from eight to fifteen feet deep. It was the supply for water-power for the rolling mill. The waste wier was at the northwest corner where the unused water ran into the river. Simon Truby had a saw- mill at this point. This was a favorite skating park. After the dam at Roaring Run broke in 1866 the water supply for the basin was impossible. The only remaining evidence of this vast pond is the depression in the "Y" at the foot of Seventh Street. The picture of S. M. Jackson and his horse, Frank, was taken from one sent from the front to Robert Jones. Mr. Jones being a lover of horses, made a trip to Canada and returned with two black Canadian stallions. A trip at that time was no insignificant journey. He traveled thro forests without seeing a habitation until he came to a long log inn. He put up his horses intending to stay all night but the wild looking crowd of halfbreeds and backwoodsmen loafing in the tavern made him uneasy. He ate his supper and, getting his horses, he rode all night. He came to a small village after daylight and put up for a much needed rest. Mr. Jones made the whole trip on horseback. After S. M. Jackson was made colonel, he was home for a few days. He took a fancy to the horse called Frank. Mr. Jones was loth to part with him but finally agreed to sell him with the understanding that should he return safe from the war he was to be re-possessed of him. At the close of the war, Tom Taylor, the colonel's colored hostler, rode the horse home and he came into the possession of Mr. Jones according to the contract. The animal was very intelligent and tractable. Samuel Jones, of Westmoreland County has one of his descendants. BIRD LIFE. About forty different species of birds may be seen in the vicin- ity of Apollo. Mud martins and bank swallows have entirely disap- peared. The purple martin has been attracted to Vandergrift be- cause of the neglect of our citizens to provide suitable boxes. A few boxes appropriate for wrens, bluebirds and martins would probably repay for the slight trouble of placing them. THE BOROUGH HORSE. Some agitation on the purchase of a borough horse led to a series of articles in the News-Record under the caption "Cogitations of the Borough Horse." The first equine owned by the borough was stolen. The second animal, unconscious of the lack of appreciation, has plodded faithfully along our streets dragging his heavy cart until he has demonstrated his cost as a good investment. He is now 27 years old. 100 THE HISTORY OF APOLLO. The first safe in Apollo was owned by John Chambers. At the time Andree sold his farm to Mr. Owens he was paid nearly all in gold and silver. Mr. Andree's son having charge of the cash stayed all night at McKinstry's. During the night Mr. Andree being ill, they heard some one prowling around the house. Wm. McKinstry called out to the trespasser to leave or he would shoot. It was quiet for some time when a little dog gave the alarm once more. They stood guard all night and the next morning they put the money in a bucket and covered it with eggs. In that way they conveyed it into town and put it into Mr. Chambers' safe. At the time of the big fire in Apollo, Dr. McBryar and Mr. W. C. Bovard fearing to trust to the bank safe as entirely fireproof, took the most valuable papers and money and put them in Bovard's bakeoven until a more suitable place could be arranged. COMMUNITY TREES. According to a lately established practice, Apollo took steps toward having a Christmas tree in public. The first tree was erected in the ball park. It was illuminated with colored electric lights and otherwise decorated. An address and music constituted the program for the Christmas observance. This first tree was in 1912. The tree of 1913 was erected at the intersection of Pennsylvania Avenue and North Fourth Street. The two succeeding trees have been put up on First Street. FIRST COLORED PEOPLE. The first negro in Apollo was James Kennedy familiarly known as Nigger Jim. He worked for John Vorhaur and had saved about $300 when two traveling men induced him to go with them on a promise of a good salary. Unknown to Jim they gradually worked down below Mason & Dixon's Line where a gentleman informed him that he heard the two men planning to sell him. Jim migrated north at once. On his arrival in Apollo, he said he could get along without the cash which the conspirators retained but he was glad they hadn't put him also in their pockets. Jim kept a little candy and cigar store for a long time. Dick Williams was the second negro man to arrive in town. S. H. McGeary, of Pennsylvania Avenue says he remembers well about seeing Dick drive a double yoke of oxen into town. He had come from Pittsburgh with a load of mater- ial for the new nail mill. He worked for Mr. Crane who was interest- ed in the new works. Belle, a domestic for 'Squire Bigham and Fanny (Frances Orr) who worked for Robert Jones were the first two colored girls in Apollo. At present we have a furniture store, three restaurants and four barber shops conducted by colored people. THE HISTORY OF APOLLO. 101 THE DEEPEST SNOW. The deepest snowfall recorded in Apollo was that in the year 1910. January 22d there were 26 inches and on February 11th, 12 inches more fell. All traffic was suspended for several hours. The picture in this work was taken on January 29th. GARBAGE FURNACE. Apollo Borough purchased a site up Sugar Hollow on North Eleventh Street extension and built a garbage disposal furnace in 1914. Mr. Barnes, of Hobart, Oklahoma, was the builder. It cost $2,815.50. A street sweeper was bought the same year. The latter was paid for by popular subscription. APOLLO FAIRS. The Fair Ground is located north of Apollo, having been built on the Hildebrand farm. The first fair was in 1890. It was not a financial success and was soon abandoned. The Kiskiminetas Valley Agricultural and Driving Association was organized by interested parties in Apollo, Vandergrift and Leechburg. It has been held an- nually since 1910. CONCRETE WORKS. Preston C. Grimm beginning with paving and the manufacture of concrete blocks has added thereto the manufacture of National Concrete Burial Vaults. His plant is located north of Apollo on the tract known as the old ball field. WIRELESS STATION. Albert S. Wilson, chief electrician for the Apollo Steel Company has established the first wireless station in Apollo. It was in service in 1915. His sending and receiving set is at his residence on North Fifth Street. Quentin Bellas, Leland T. Henry and John Fiscus, Jr. also have wireless sets. When the "gold fever" struck Apollo in 1852, Patrick Turney and Cornelius Blue were the first to leave their canal boats and speed westward. They stuck together and took up two claims in Californ- ia. Both were "paying" claims. The first year they were swindled out of $18,000 by a bogus express company. The next year they worked their claims alone and, in the parlance of the day, came back "well heeled." A few other citizens tried their luck for the golden sand, among them were Jack Ford, Charles Silverman and R. S. Cochran. John Mcllwain lost an election bet to John B. Chambers over the election of the Governor. Mcllwain was so sure that the Democrats 102 THE HISTORY OF APOLLO. would lose this year that he planned to have Mr. Chambers, who was an ardent but very fleshy Democrat, wheel a bushel of apples from Apollo to Kittanning. It seems that not enough Republicans turned out on election day and the Kittanning papers chronicled the en- trance of John Mclhvain and his wheelbarrow into that city after pushing eighteen miles over country roads to pay his debt, a tired, wiser but less enthusiastic man. PRESENT BUSINESS, MAY 1916. Frank Jones, Ice Dealer, Warren Avenue. Miss Bess Younkins, Dressmaking, South Fourth Street. C. C. Kettering, Fords and Public Garage and Repair Shop, South Third Street. Geo. W. Steel, Livery and Public Garage, South Second and Third Streets. D. H. Williams, Pittsburgh Messenger, Kiskiminetas Avenue. James Macagno, General Store, Kiskiminetas Avenue. Bell Telephone Central, Whitlinger Residence, South Second Street. George Neurohr, Cigar Factory, South Second Street. Stewart's Studio, First Street. American Natural Gas Co., Office, First Street. Elizabeth Jones, Dress Making, First Street. C. D. Pattengall, Barber, First and Warren Avenue. The Hartman House, First Street and Warren Avenue. W. F. Pauly, Drugs, Stationery and Paints, First Street. Walter Matthews, Barber, First Street. A. D. Stewart, Harness and Hardware, First Street. Apollo Trust Company, First Street. W. E. Fryor, Barber, First Street. J. E. Gallagher, Real Estate and Insurance, Notary Public, First Street. W. F. Devers, Groceries, First Street. Sutton & Flude, Gents' Furnishings and Clothing, First Street. H. S. Steel, Hardware and Gasoline, First Street. C. H. Truby, Hardware and Paints, First Street. Porreca's Department Store, First Street. L. Todd Owens, Flour and Feed, First Street. W. P. R. R. Depot and Postal Telegraph, Kiskiminetas Avenue an First Street. John W. Whitlinger, Meat Market, First Street. J. Wes Cowan, Dry Goods and Groceries, First Street. H. W. Walker & Son, Meat Market, First Street. Bert Whitlinger, Meat Market, First Street. Ralph Whitlinger, Vulcanizing and Auto Supplies, First Street. B. F. Bosworth, Confections and Ice Cream, First Street. THE HISTORY OF APOLLO. 103 Robert McLaughlin & Son, Real Estate & Insurance, First Street. H. J, Caliman, Restaurant, First Street. W. W. Leech, Physician and Surgeon, First Street. A. H. Townsend, Physician and Surgeon, First Street. Colin Cameron, Dentist, First Street. A. C. McCuUough, Livery Stable and Hack Service on Star Route, Grove Street. H. M. Pearlstein, Clothing and Gents' Furnishings, Warren Ave- nue. Walter L. George, Groceries, Warren Avenue. Mrs. Mary King, Dressmaking, Warren Avenue. Mrs. Archie George, Notion Store, Warren Avenue. J. Burt Miller, Groceries, Warren Avenue. The Famous, Clothing and Gents' Furnishings, Warren Avenue. Tom's Place, Pocket Billiards, Warren Avenue. W. W. Hill, News Stand, Cigars and Candies, Warren Avenue. T. Earle McCuUough, Five & Ten Cent Store, Warren Avenue. Pittsburgh Store, Milo D. Shaw, prop.. Dry Goods and Millinery, Warren Avenue. H. S. Johnston, Jeweler and Optician, Warren Avenue. Wm. Tredes, Confections and Ice Cream, Warren Avenue. W. C. Campbell Company, Shoes, Warren Avenue. H. Leder, Fruit Store, Warren Avenue; Groceries, North Apollo. Warren J. Currie, Dentist, Warren Avenue. Vandergrift Dry Cleaning Company, Warren Avenue. George Teeters, Tailor, Warren Avenue. Ira J. Wray, Real Estate and Insurance, Notary Public, Warren Avenue. Office of Western Union Telegraph Co., Warren Avenue. F. T. Wray, Druggist and Stationery, Warren Avenue. D. L. Haney, Restaurant, Warren Avenue. J. M. D. Shaw, Livery, Kiskiminetas Avenue. James DeShong, Livery and Contracting, North Second Street. W. G. King, Undertaking, North Second Street. Ralph Marks, Blacksmith, North Second Street. C. E. Hill, Meats and Groceries, Cor. Pennsylvania Avenue and North Second Street. H. J. Kuhns, Plumbing, North Second Street. William McCauley, Garage and Auto Repairs, Near Warren Ave- nue. Apollo Water Works Company, North Second Street. First National Bank, Warren Avenue and North Second Street. Post Office, Warren Avenue. S. E. Calhoun, Dentist, Warren Avenue. S. G. McNees, Attorney, Warren Avenue. Thomas Sutton, Gents' Furnishings and Clothing, Warren Avenue. N. H. Gosser, Furniture and Undertaking, Warren Avenue. 104 THE HISTORY OF APOLLO. Syl. T. Hildebrand, Barber Shop and Restaurant, Warren Ave- nue. E. E. Nale, Jewelry and Watches, Warren Avenue. Mrs. G. A. Davenport, Job Printing, Warren Avenue. J. C. Hunter, Physician and Surgeon, Warren Avenue. S. Calderone, Fruit Store, Warren Avenue. Miss Laura Hasinger, Millinery, Warren Avenue. S. C. McMillen, One Cent to One Dollar Store, Warren Avenue. Office of Electric Steel Company, Warren Avenue. Apollo Sentinel, Warren Avenue. Smoke Shop, "Dad" Reno, prop., Warren Avenue. Wich & Watterson, Bakery, Warren Avenue. Woodies' Moving Pictures, Warren Avenue. Clyde Devilling, Auto Repairs, Railroad Avenue. Jay Davis, Carriages, Machinery and Electric Welding. Joseph Owens, Livery, Grace Street. John Green, Ice Manufacturer, Kiskiminetas Avenue. H. D. Bellas, Garage, Automobiles and Gasoline, Railroad Ave- nue. F. M. Newingham, Garage and Gasoline, Railroad Avenue. David Rubright, Groceries, Oak Hill. Mary Daugherty ,Tea Shop, Oak Hill. Elmer Miller, Groceries, Terrace Avenue. Yee Mon, Chinese Laundry, Pennsylvania Avenue. S. D. Kelly, Milk Depot, Pennsylvania Avenue. Herman Cunningham, Plumber, North Fourth Street. Keys & Gazesky, Blacksmiths, North Third Street. Vincent Gotuso, Shoemaker, North Fourth Street. John M. Grant, Tailor, North Fourth Street. Art Shop, Wall Paper and Upholstering, North Fourth Street. A. A. Gettleman, Plumbing and Supplies, North Fourth Street. Ed. Baxter, Tinner and Plumber, North Fourth Street. J. Q. Cochrane, Justice of the Peace, North Second Street. C. W. Kepple, Furniture and Undertaking, North Fourth Street. News-Record, North Fourth Street. Eva McAninch, Millinery, North Fourth Street. J. M. Grimm, Groceries, Candies and Butterine, North Fourth Street. Harry M. West, Awnings, Pennsylvania Avenue. Geo. J. Bortz, Hardware and Paints, North Fourth Street. E. A. Townsend and Son, Groceries and Dry Goods, North Fourth Street. Clyde Ament, Music and Musical Instruments, North Fourth Street. C. W. Bollinger, Drugs and Ice Cream, North Fourth Street. W. I. Saffle, Confections and Ice Cream, North Fourth Street. T. J. Henry, Physician and Surgeon, North Fourth Street. THE HISTORY OF APOLLO. 105 J. Preston Wood, Plumbing and Supplies, Cor. North Fourth and Warren Avenue. Thos. Scott, Barber, Cor. North Fourth and Warren Avenue. Hudson & Kissick, Suits to Order, Warren Avenue. Kittanning Telephone Central, Pennsylvania Avenue. Charles G. Culp, Ice Cream, North Fifth and Armstrong Avenue. Miss Odessa Bortz, Dressmaking, North Sixth Street. George Casimatis, Soft Drinks and Shoemaking, Warren Avenue. Preston C. Grimm, Concrete Work, Armstrong Avenue. Samuel Campbell, Furniture, Warren Avenue. Cunningham's Restaurant, Warren Avenue and Seventh Street. Alcorn Brothers, Lumber, Seventh Street. J. W. Whitlinger, Butcher Shop, Warren Avenue. E. A. Griffith, Barber, Warren Avenue. C. W. Jackson, Restaurant, Warren Avenue. M. Giovanelli, Groceries, Warren Avenue. S. A. Jones, Groceries, Warren Avenue. W. A. Gray, Drugs and Sodas, Warren Avenue. T. F. Tucker, Restaurant, Warren Avenue. Louis Rosenfield, General Supply Store, Warren Avenue. W. W. Wallace & Company, Planing Mill, North Eleventh Street. John Henry, Fish Market, Pennsylvania Avenue. Atlantic Refining Company, Oils, North Apollo. George S. Brown, Greenhouse, Potted and Cut Flowers, North Apollo. Wm. Daniels, Groceries and Meats, Allison. Mike Asper, Pool Room, Warren Avenue. Brodhead & Shocky, Post Office and General Store, Paulton. Frank Vigo, Groceries, Paulton. Natalia Lalla, Groceries and Ice Cream, Paulton. Thomas Wilson, Groceries, Oklahoma. Norman Wishart, Groceries, Oklahoma. Belvedere Hotel, Jos. Gianini, Prop., West Apollo. Apollo Woolen Mill, North Apollo. A. & P. Tea Company, First Street. Samuel Newingham, Harness Repairs, Oak Hill. George L. Rudolf, Shoemaker, Oak Hill. Gildo Forno, General Store, Vilas. Peter Psena, General Store, Vilas.